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Table 7 Cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratio

From: Potential cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios of adult pneumococcal vaccination in Germany

  PCV13 vs. PPV23 PCV13 vs.‘no vaccination’ PPV23 vs.‘no vaccination’
 Cost-effectiveness 
Additional vaccination cost (€) 36,322,624 63,341,927 27,019,302
Cost savings (€) 75,907,677 80,248,574 4,340,897
Life years gained 22,942 24,480 1,537
ICER (cost per life year gained) −1,725 −691 14,751
 Benefit-cost ratio 
Direct cost 2.09 1.27 0.16
Direct cost + indirect cost 2.16 1.32 0.19