Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of the studies included

From: Cost of illness studies on reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: a systematic literature review

Study, publication year, country Costing year Topic related to RMNCH Perspective Time frame Cost Costing approach Cost items and description Discount rate Sample size
  As reported Purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2012, given as international dollar (ID)* Incidence/prevalence Bottom- up/top-down Retrospective/prospective Direct cost Indirect cost  
Bartick & Reinhold, 2010, USA [18] 2007 Breastfeeding Societal 1 year US$13 billion/year with 90% compliance rate and US$10.5 billion/year with 80% compliance rate ID14.39 billion/year with 90% compliance and ID11.62 billion/year with 80% compliance Not clear Not clear Not clear Disease-specific costs are obtained from the literature Not clear 3% Not clear
Buchner et al., 2007, the Netherlands [21] Not clear Breastfeeding Health care 1 year €50 million/year for 6 months’ exclusive breastfeeding ID47 million/year for 6 months’ exclusive breastfeeding Incidence Not clear Not clear Disease-related cost from the Netherlands NA 4% Model simulation
Ringborg et al., 2006, Sweden [23] 2000 Preterm birth Not clear 1 year For LBW babies, mean cost €21,837/baby; for preterm births, €20,263/baby For LBW babies, mean cost ID37,838/baby; for preterm births, ID35,119/baby Not clear Not clear Retrospective Only inpatient care cost NA NA 336,136 live births
Schmitt et al., 2006, USA [24] 2003 Preterm birth Not clear Hospital discharge US$33,970/LBW child ID42,308/LBW child Not clear Not clear Not clear Hospital care cost Not clear NA Cohort of 518,704 live births
Petrou, 2003, UK [25] 1998–1999 Preterm birth Not clear 10 years £18,000 for babies of GA <31 weeks and £5,376 for babies of <37 weeks’ GA ID18,604 for babies of GA <31 weeks and ID5,556 for babies of <37 weeks’ GA Not clear Not clear Not clear Hospital admission care Not clear Not clear Cohort of 117,212 births
Phibbs & Schmitt, 2006, USA [26] 2003 Preterm birth Not clear Not clear Delaying delivery from 26 to 37 weeks will save US$206,000/case, and from 29 to 37 weeks will save US$122,000/case Delaying delivery from 26 weeks to 37 weeks will save ID25,7045/case, and from 29 to 37 weeks will save ID152,230/case Not clear Not clear Not clear Inpatient care cost Not clear Not clear 193,167 infants at 24–37 weeks’ GA
Mangham et al., 2009, UK [27] 2006 Preterm birth Health care 18 years £2,946 billion ID2.10 billion Incidence Bottom-up Retrospective Inpatient and outpatient care NA 3.5% Hypothetical cohort of 669,601 children
Behrman & Bulter, 2007, USA [28] 2005 Preterm birth Societal Lifelong US$26.2 billion ID31.15 billion Incidence Top-down Retrospective Child cost and mother cost Household and labor market productivity
US$5.7 billion
3% Cohort of 23,631 births
John et al., 2009, India [30] 2004 Tuberculosis Societal 2004 US$311 million ID35 million Prevalence Not clear Not clear Inpatient and outpatient care, medicine, diagnostics, medical appliances Informal care cost, lost productivity cost 73,868 households
Rein DB 2000, USA [31] 1998 PID Health care 1 year; lifetime US$1.88 billion for 1 year and US$1,167/case for a lifetime ID2.64 billion for 1 year; ID1,643 for a lifetime Prevalence Bottom-up Retrospective Inpatient, outpatient, and STD clinic cost NA 5% 1.76 million visits to clinic
Yeh at al., 2003, USA [32] 2000 PID Societal Lifetime US$1,060–3,180/person over a lifetime ID1,413–4,239/person over a lifetime Not clear Not clear Not clear Only direct medical costs derived from the literature Lost productivity cost 3% Hypothetical cohort of 100,000
Trent et al., 2010, USA [33] 2009 PID Health care 1 year US$3,025/episode ID3,237/episode Prevalence Bottom-up Retrospective Inpatient and outpatient costs NA Not clear 152 individuals
Owusu-Edusei et al., 2010, USA [34] 2007 Chlamydia Third party Per episode US$141 for females/episode and US$157 for males/episode US$156 for females/episode and US$173 for males/episode Prevalence Not clear Retrospective Hospital care cost NA Not clear 7,301 male, 26,313 female cases
Blandford & Gift, 2006, USA [35] 2001 Reproductive health Not clear Lifetime US$130 per chlamydia infection and US$649 per PID ID168 per chlamydia infection and ID841 per PID Not clear Not clear Not clear NA Productivity lost, days (HCA) 3% Monte Carlo simulation
Pultorak et al., 2009, USA [36] 2007 STI Health care 2 years US$69.7 million for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis ID77.18 million for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis Incidence Not clear Not clear From the literature NA No discount Not clear
Chesson et al., 2004, USA [37] 2000 STDs Health care 1 year US$6.5 billion in 2006 ID8.66 billion Incidence Bottom-up Not clear From the literature NA 3% Not clear
Hoy et al., 2009, USA [39] 2004 Genital warts Third party payer 1 year US$220 million ID267.39 million Prevalence Bottom-up Retrospective Diagnosis, treatment, outpatient visits Not clear NA 1,158 patients from a cohort & US census
Hillemanns et al., 2008, Germany [40] 2005 Genital warts Third party and societal 1 year €49.0 million third party cost; €54.1 million societal cost ID49.53 million third party cost; ID54.68 million societal cost Prevalence Bottom-up Retrospective Outpatient visits, diagnostic test, hospitalization, medication Loss of productive days, calculated as GDP/person/day NA Statistically extrapolated for the entire German population
Insinga et al., 2003, USA [41] 2000 Genital warts Third party perspective 1 year US$140 million ID186.66 million Prevalence Bottom-up Retrospective Outpatient, inpatient, and pharmaceutical care Not clear NA 1,919 patients and extrapolation
Pirotta et al., 2010, Australia [42] 2009 Genital warts Health care 1 year AUS$14 million ID21.52 million Prevalence Bottom-up Retrospective GP visit, GP referral, and hospital care NA Extrapolation to the whole country
Marra et al., 2009, Canada [43] 2006 Genital warts Health care 8 years Can$8,295,101, or Can$1 million per year ID11,402,469, or ID1.34 million per year Not clear Not clear Retrospective Inpatient care, physician time, nursing, drugs NA No discount 39,493 incident cases and 50,634 prevalent cases
  1. *Data obtained from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=SNA_TABLE4), United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/cpi/cpiai.txt), and The World Bank (http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.GDP.PCAP.EM.KD?page=1).
  2. GA= gestational age; HCA = human capital approach; NA = not applicable; PID = pelvic inflammatory disease; RMNCH = reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health; STD = sexually transmitted disease; STI = sexually transmitted infection.