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Table 2 Summary of binge drinking and price/tax studies

From: Binge drinking and alcohol prices: a systematic review of age-related results from econometric studies, natural experiments and field studies

Study & year; H if Harvard CAS sample Binge drinking measures & quantity Price/tax measures Results for statistical significance
Youth studies
Bhatt (2011) [35] 2+ episodes, 5+ drinks ACCRA beer Significant
Carpenter et al. (2007) [36] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant
Chaloupka & Laixuthai (1997) [37] Any, 5+ drinks ACCRA beer Signif. 1989, not signif. pooled
Chatterji (2001) [38] Any, 5+ drink; No. episodes beer tax Not significant
Cowan (2011) [39] No. episodes, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant
Dee (1999b) [40] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant w/ fixed-effect
Dee (1999c) [41] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant w/ fixed-effect
Dee & Evans (2003) [42] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant w/ fixed effect
Grossman (2005) [43] Prevalence, 5+ drinks BLS beer index Significant
Laixuthai & Chaloupka (1993) [44] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Signif. 1982, not signif. 1989
Markowitz (2001) [45] No. episodes, 5+ drinks beer tax Significant
Medina (2011) [46] Prevalence, 5+ drinks BLS beer index Signif., except males
Nair (2001) [47] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Signif. males, not females
Nelson (2008) [48] Prevalence, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant w/ fixed effect
Renna (2007) [49] 2+ episodes, 6+ drinks beer tax Not significant
Saffer & Dave (2006) [50] Any, 5+ drinks ACCRA ave. MTF, signif. female, not male
Saffer & Dave (2006) [50] Any, 5+ drinks ACCRA ave. NLSY, not significant
Xuan et al. (2013) [51] Any, 5+ drinks beer tax Not signif. w/ adult binge incl.
Young adult studies
Bray (2000, 2005) [52,53] 3+ episodes, 6+ drinks beer tax Men only, not significant
Chaloupka &Wechsler(1996) [54], H Any, 5/4+ drinks ACCRA beer Not significant, both genders
Cook & Moore (1994) [55] 4+ episodes, 6+ drinks beer tax Signif. female; not signif. male
Cook & Moore (2001) [56] 4+ episodes, 6+ drinks beer tax Not significant, both genders
Cowell (2006) [57] Any, 6+ drinks; 4+ episodes beer tax Men only, not significant
French & Maclean (2006) [58] No. days intoxicated beer tax Signif. male; not signif. female
Gius (2003) [59] Any, 6+ drinks Wt. ave. tax Not significant
Grossman et al. (1987) [60] No. drinks per day, incl. 6+ BLS prices Not significant
Keng & Huffman (2007) [62] & Keng (1998) [61], 2 studies 4+ episodes, 6+ drinks ACCRA ave., ACCRA beer Significant ave. price; not significant for beer price
Kenkel (1993) [63] No. episodes, 5+ drinks ACCRA ave. Signif. female; not signif. male
Nelson (2008) [48] Prevalence, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant
Powell et al. (2002) [64], H Any, 5/4+ drink; 3+ episode Ave price, fix fee Signif. price; fix fee mixed
Rhoads (2010) Any, 5+ drink; No. episodes ACCRA ave. Not significant
Sutton & Godfrey (1995) [65] Units per week, incl. 36+ Price index Men only, significant
Wechsler et al. (2000) [66], H Any, 5/4+ drinks Ave. price, free Signif. price; not signif. free
Weitzman et al. (2003) [67], H Any, 5/4+ drinks Ave price, fix fee Significant both prices
Williams et al. (2005) [68], H Any, 5/4+ drink; No. drunk Ave price, fix fee Signif. price; not signif. fix fee
Wolaver (2007) [69], H Any, 5/4+ drink; Any drunk Ave, fix fee, free Not significant, both genders
Wolaver et al. (2007a) [70], H Any, 5/4+ drink; 2+ episode Ave price, fix fee Not signif. w/ binge rate incl.
Adult studies
Asgeirsdottir et al. (2012) [72] Any, 5+ drinks Price index Not significant
Ayyagari et al. (2013) [29] No. episodes, 4+ drink ACCRA ave. Not significant
Byrnes et al. (2013) [74] No. drinks per day, incl. 5+ Price index Not significant
Cook (2007) [75] Any, 5/4+ drinks Wt. ave. tax Significant, both genders
Davalos et al. (2012) [76] Any, 5/4+ drink; No episode beer tax Significant
Dee (1999a) [41] Any, 5+ drinks Three taxes Not significant, both genders
Gius (2002) [77] Any, 6+ drinks Three taxes Not significant
Kenkel (1993) [63] No. episodes, 5+ drinks ACCRA ave. Significant, both genders
Kenkel (1996) [78] No. episodes, 5+ drinks ACCRA ave. Not signif. except well-info
Ludbrook et al. (2012) [79] 50/35+ units per week Low price index Significant
Manning et al. (1995) [31] Any, 5+ drink; No. episodes ACCRA ave. Mixed results; signif. part.
McLellan (2011) [80] Any, 5+ drinks ACCRA beer Not significant, w/ fixed effect
Nelson (2008) [48] Prevalence, 5+ drinks beer tax Not significant
Popovici & French (2013) [81] No. episodes, 5/4+ drinks ACCRA prices Not significant, both genders
Rhoads (2010) Any, 5+ drink; No. episodes ACCRA ave. Mixed results; signif. freq.
Sloan et al. (1995) [82] Any, 5+ drink; No. episodes ACCRA ave. Mixed results; signif. freq.
Stout et al. (2000) [83] Any, 5+ drinks ACCRA ave. Not significant
Terza (2002) [84] Top 10% of use beer tax Not significant
Zhang (2010) [85] Any, 5+ drinks Three taxes Women, significant
Experiments & field studies
Chung et al. (2013) [86] Any, 5/4+ drinks 100% tax cut Not significant
Clapp et al. (2003) [87] Any, 5+ drinks Free drinks Not significant
Gmel et al. (2008) [88] 40/20 g + per day 30-50% tax cut Not significant, long-run
Gustafsson (2010) [89] No. units, top 10% of use 45% tax cut Not significant
Heeb et al. (2003) [90] Any, 6/4+ drinks 9-50% tax cut Not significant
Helakorpi et al. (2010) [91] Any, 6+ drinks 33% tax cut Mixed results, both genders
Jamison & Myers (2008) [92] Any, 5/4+ drinks Price specials Not significant
O’Mara et al. (2009) [94] Breath test; no. grams Price per gram Significant on-premise
Stockwell et al. (1993) [95] Any, 6/4+ drinks Price specials Not significant
Thombs et al. (2008, 2009) [96,97] Breath test Price specials Fixed fee signif., others not
Wagoner et al. (2012) [98] Any, 5/4+ drinks Free drinks Significant
  1. Price-binge relationships are judged using a 95% confidence interval (p ≤ 0.05) for statistical significant. Studies with more definitive statistical results are indicated in bold type. Complete references are in Additional file 2 and more detailed results are in Additional file 1 for the on-line supplemental tables. Unpublished studies are: S-H Keng: The demand for health, alcohol abuse, and labor market outcomes: a longitudinal study, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Ames, IA: Iowa State University; 1998. JK Rhoads: Consequences of tobacco control policies: intended and unintended, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago; 2010.