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Table 5 Summary of robustness checks results for health care availability: Probit and IV probit average marginal effects associated with HF staff and equipment in locality and district, Mozambique 2009

From: Health service availability and health seeking behaviour in resource poor settings: evidence from Mozambique

  Whole sample Hhold lives within 1 hour from HF Hhold lives more than 1 hour from HF HF staff and equipment index endogeneity Instrument strength
Probit IVProbit Probit Probit
Main model
 HF staff and equipment index (locality average) 0.043 0.122 0.075*** −0.060 Exogenous Strong
  (0.029) (0.083) (0.029) (0.061)
 HF staff and equipment index (district average) 0.074* 0.464** 0.132*** −0.062 Exogenous except for all sample Weak
  (0.042) (0.230) (0.044) (0.087)
Excluding provincial capitals
 HF staff and equipment index (locality average) 0.041 0.099 0.072** −0.060 Exogenous Strong
  (0.031) (0.082) (0.034) (0.061)
 HF staff and equipment index (district average) 0.076 0.218* 0.155*** −0.062 Exogenous Strong
  (0.049) (0.117) (0.059) (0.087)
PCA weighting
 HF staff and equipment index (locality average) 0.009 0.041 0.024** −0.027 Exogenous Strong
  (0.010) (0.028) (0.010) (0.020)
 HF staff and equipment index (district average) 0.020 0.191* 0.041*** −0.022 Exogenous except for whole sample Weak
  (0.013) (0.109) (0.014) (0.024)
Village cluster SE
 HF staff and equipment index (locality average) 0.043 0.122 0.075** −0.060 Exogenous Strong
  (0.033) (0.087) (0.037) (0.059)
 HF staff and equipment index (district average) 0.074 0.464** 0.132** −0.062 Exogenous except for whole sample Weak
  (0.053) (0.219) (0.059) (0.091)
District cluster SE
 HF staff and equipment index (locality average) 0.043 0.122 0.075** −0.060 Exogenous Strong
  (0.029) (0.083) (0.030) (0.057)
 HF staff and equipment index (district average) 0.074* 0.464* 0.132*** −0.062 Exogenous except for whole sample Weak
  (0.043) (0.245) (0.047) (0.081)
  1. 1st and 2nd Stage refer to reduced-form and structural equation
  2. Average marginal effects reported
  3. Standard errors corrected for intra-cluster correlation at locality level in parentheses when not differently specified
  4. Constant, Percentage of clinics among HFs, Demand-side characterictics, Province and month controls included
  5. Exogenous if Wald test for exogeneity does not reject the null hypothesis of exogeneity at 5 % level
  6. HC health Centre, DH district Hospital
  7. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1