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Table 1 Descriptive statistics according to households’ characteristics and structures

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure by private households for dental services – empirical evidence from Austria

Total households Dental Care Expenditures
Average exp. Expenditures >0
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. N
Household structure
 Single person I 23.75 116.86 141.57 255.19 126
 Single person II 24.15 101.76 136.49 208.26 172
 Unmarried couple 48.19 236.65 181.64 433.94 91
 Married couple 36.12 121.22 165.35 214.82 128
 Empty nest 42.77 135.90 149.14 220.51 232
 Full nest I 29.74 124.98 129.84 235.45 164
 Full nest II 58.80 151.77 167.71 218.01 271
 Married couple w/o childs 38.16 116.47 129.61 185.51 106
 Single parents 24.52 104.07 122.86 206.25 92
Degree of urbanization
 High urbanization 41.21 158.53 169.37 285.82 502
 Average urbanization 36.60 138.14 148.69 246.92 369
 Low urbanization 29.65 99.95 128.59 175.06 513
Age structure
 Age <25 7.07 35.41 86.46 94.51 17
 Age 25–45 31.13 131.35 134.12 246.17 506
 Age 45–65 43.96 144.97 170.07 244.81 588
 Age 65–85 32.49 122.11 133.78 219.01 273
Education level
 Primary education 13.15 47.19 74.56 89.96 130
 Other education 38.40 140.15 154.93 247.46 1125
 Tertiary education 42.79 150.56 169.61 262.05 129
Insurance characteristics (public)
 GKK 30.09 126.79 137.51 242.35 892
 BVA 49.75 153.49 174.31 246.88 302
 SVA 47.03 127.38 161.43 193.33 141
 SVB 46.11 156.38 159.03 259.34 49
 Private health insurance (1) 45.56 122.36 179.77 250.98 290
 Private health insurance (2) 43.59 145.52 147.91 183.19 207
Total households 35.57 133.28 148.74 239.72 1384
N (households) 5787   1384   
Robustness checks
 Specialized treatments 27.41 93.07 122.89 164.66 1261
 Routine dental services 8.15 91.62 300.70 472.05 157
  1. Notes: (1) corresponds to one adult of a household that has additional private health insurance. (2) corresponds to both adults of the household having additional private health insurance. This also includes households consisting of one individual (single person I and single person II). Dummy variables for female householders and income are not reported