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Table 2 Econometric results of the two-part model and one-part GLM

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure by private households for dental services – empirical evidence from Austria

  Dental care expenditure
Probability (Logit) Conditional (GLM) a GLM a
Coeff. Rob. SD Coeff. Rob. SD Coeff. Rob. SD
Household structure
 Single person II −0.287* 0.169 −0.005 0.048 −0.154 0.226
 Unmarried couple 0.478** 0.194 −0.005 0.052 0.775*** 0.266
 Married couple 0.125 0.178 −0.068 0.053 −0.137 0.255
 Empty nest 0.267 0.186 −0.005 0.049 0.107 0.259
 Full nest I 0.390** 0.165 −0.075* 0.043 0.162 0.237
 Full nest II 0.690*** 0.162 0.008 0.040 0.496** 0.231
 Married couple w/o children 0.464** 0.205 −0.081 0.057 −0.040 0.297
 Single parents 0.011 0.189 −0.033 0.050 0.012 0.246
Degree of urbanization
 Average urbanization −0.041 0.095 −0.022 0.024 −0.019 0.136
 Low urbanization −0.135 0.089 −0.022 0.023 −0.287** 0.126
Age structure
 Age 25–45 years 0.997*** 0.315 0.062 0.116 1.343*** 0.306
 Age 45–65 years 1.301*** 0.322 0.105 0.117 1.873*** 0.321
 Age 65–85 years 1.420*** 0.341 0.035 0.121 1.861*** 0.345
Education level
 Other education 0.272** 0.132 0.089** 0.042 0.694*** 0.174
 Tertiary education 0.282 0.185 0.090* 0.051 0.832*** 0.253
Insurance characteristics (public)
 BVA 0.288*** 0.095 0.028 0.025 0.323** 0.139
 SVA 0.170 0.129 0.024 0.029 0.304 0.192
 SVB 0.531*** 0.205 0.066 0.045 0.668** 0.311
 Private health insurance (1) 0.179 0.113 0.013 0.026 0.150 0.170
 Private health insurance (2) 0.016 0.096 0.007 0.023 0.121 0.134
Other characteristics
 Female householder 0.214** 0.095 0.028 0.025 0.121 0.137
 Income (log) 0.235** 0.095 0.129*** 0.026 0.466*** 0.124
 Constant −4.795*** 0.759 0.268 0.218 −2.684*** 0.955
Observations (households) 5787   1384   5787  
  1. Notes: aGLM with log-link and gamma distribution. (1) corresponds to one adult of the household with additional private health insurance. (2) corresponds to both adults of the household having additional private health insurance. This also includes households consisting of one individual (single person I and single person II). Reference groups: single person I, high urbanization, age class 18–25 years, primary education, GKK, no additional private health insurance, and male householder. Significance levels: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, and * p < 0.1