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Table 3 Econometric results of the two-part model and one-part GLM (specialized treatments)

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure by private households for dental services – empirical evidence from Austria

  Expenditures for specialized treatments
Probability (Logit) Conditional (GLM) a GLM a
Coeff. Rob. S.D. Coeff. Rob. S.D. Coeff. Rob. S.D.
Household structure       
 Single person II −0.115 0.145 0.121 0.183 −0.010 0.208
 Unmarried couple 0.475*** 0.174 −0.104 0.174 0.307 0.252
 Married couple 0.089 0.158 −0.109 0.180 −0.106 0.243
 Empty nest 0.360** 0.159 −0.047 0.175 0.212 0.242
 Full nest I 0.353** 0.152 −0.146 0.156 0.084 0.226
 Full nest II 0.754*** 0.145 0.029 0.142 0.588*** 0.218
 Married couple w/o childs 0.365** 0.180 −0.421** 0.185 −0.154 0.277
 Single parents 0.090 0.165 −0.124 0.160 −0.043 0.227
Degree of urbanization       
 Average urbanization −0.047 0.084 −0.110 0.088 −0.060 0.127
 Low urbanization −0.171** 0.079 −0.147* 0.081 −0.251** 0.117
Age structure       
 Age 25–45 1.133*** 0.285 0.272 0.342 1.279*** 0.292
 Age 45–65 1.333*** 0.292 0.598* 0.348 1.804*** 0.301
 Age 65–85 1.488*** 0.305 0.522 0.363 1.812*** 0.317
Education level       
 Other education 0.291** 0.116 0.489*** 0.137 0.642*** 0.165
 Tertiary education 0.220 0.167 0.303* 0.168 0.501** 0.239
Insurance characteristics (public)       
 BVA 0.171** 0.085 −0.004 0.080 0.186 0.130
 SVA 0.204* 0.113 0.147 0.112 0.338* 0.179
 SVB 0.425** 0.182 0.164 0.158 0.436 0.290
 Private health insurance (1) 0.220** 0.099 0.024 0.092 0.214 0.159
 Private health insurance (2) 0.003 0.084 0.090 0.082 0.024 0.125
Other characteristics       
 Female householder 0.093 0.084 0.137 0.099 0.190 0.127
 Income (log) 0.202** 0.085 0.475*** 0.077 0.610*** 0.114
 Constant −4.666*** 0.681 0.147 0.657 −3.951*** 0.865
Observations (households) 5787   1291   5787  
  1. Notes: aGLM with log-link and gamma distribution. Significance level *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1