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Table 4 Overview of variable specification and corresponding share of observations

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure by private households for dental services – empirical evidence from Austria

Variables Percentage of observations S.D. Definition
Household structure
 Single person 1 12.98 0.44 Household consists of 1 adult, single.
 Single person II 16.80 0.49 Household consists of 1 adult, either married, divorced or widowed.
 Unmarried couple 5.93 0.31 Household consists of 2 adults, unmarried.
 Married couple 10.13 0.40 Household consists of 2 adults, married, members are below 60 years.
 Empty nest 13.98 0.46 Household consists of 2 adults, married, members are above 60 years.
 Full nest 1 12.37 0.43 Household consists of 2 adults, members are below 40 years, at least one child.
 Full nest II 13.36 0.45 Household consists of 2 adults, members are above 40 years, at least one child.
 Married couple w/o childs 6.22 0.32 Household consists of more than 3 adults, married, no children.
 Single parents 7.97 0.36 Household consists of one adult, at least one child,
Degree of urbanization
 High urbanization 35.65 0.63 Areas with a population of at least 50,000 and more than 500 inhabitants per square kilometer.
 Average urbanization 25.90 0.58 Areas with a population of at least 50,000 and 100–500 inhabitants per square kilometer.
 Low urbanization 38.45 0.54 All other areas.
Age structure
 Age <25 3.59 0.24 Average age of both adults. Refers to householder, if household consists of one adult.
 Age 25–45 37.67 0.64 Average age of both adults. Refers to householder, if household consists of one adult.
 Age 45–55 39.31 0.64 Average age of both adults. Refers to householder, if household consists of one adult.
 Age 65–85 19.42 0.52 Average age of both adults. Refers to householder, if household consists of one adult.
Education level
 Primary education 12.74 0.44 Both adults have a primary education level. This also includes households consisting of one adult.
 Other education 78.43 0.54 Both adults have a mixed or secondary education level. This also includes households consisting of one adult.
 Tertiary education 8.83 0.37 Both adults have a secondary education level. This also includes households cons/sting of one adult.
Insurance characteristics (public)
 GKK 70.43 0.60 Workers in the private sector. Refers to householder’s insurance type:
 BVA 18.28 0.51 Public servants. Refers to householder’s insurance type.
 SVA 8.36 0.36 Employers. Refers to householders insurance type.
 SVB 2.92 0.22 Farmers. Refers to householder’s insurance type
 Additional private health insurance (1) 11.61 0.42 One adult of the household has an additional health insurance.
 Additional private health insurance (2) 20.67 0.53 All adults have an additional health insurance. This includes households consisting of one adult.
Other characteristics
 Female householder 32.73 0.62 Householder is female.
 Income 2986.40 2025.56 Monthly household Income in Euros.