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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the sample overall and by primary care model

From: Efficiency of Ontario primary care physicians across payment models: a stochastic frontier analysis

  All   FFS   FHG   Blended Capitation   Salaried   FHT   Excluded physicians
Variable Name n Mean (sd) n Mean (sd) n Mean (sd) n Mean (sd) n Mean (sd) n Mean (sd) n Mean (sd)
Dependent Variables
# of patients seen 174 1,736 (1,118) 17 1,580 (1,292) 40 2,321 (1,741) 54 1,586 (752) 6 1,007 (569) 56 1,564 (646) 9 1,873 (1,499)
# of physician visits 174 5,105 (2,845) 17 5,709 (3,768) 40 6,581 (3,783) 54 4,778 (2,155) 6 3,216 (2,327) 56 4,340 (1939) 9 5,593 (3,707)
Estimated panel a 178 1,636 (1,385) 21 1,914 (1,501) 40 1,899 (1,311) 53 1,371 (617) 10 929 (281) 54 1,762 (1912) 16 2,101 (3,495)
Inputs
Weekly hours 181 40.4 (11.3) 22 44.6 (12.8) 40 42.4 (12.7) 54 37.7 (9.0) 9 38.3 (5.3) 54 38.9 (11.2) 18 38.1 (14.0)
Hours of direct care 181 32.5 (10.6) 22 35.4 (8.8) 40 32.9 (12.9) 53 30.2* (10.0) 10 32.7 (5.4) 55 32.3 (9.7) 16 33.2 (12.1)
Average regular consult duration 183 14.7 (4.9) 22 16.4 (7.0) 40 13.5 (4.8) 54 13.4* (3.7) 10 21.8* (6.2) 56 14.4 (3.6) 18 18.2 (7.1)
Average long consult duration 182 31.3 (9.4) 22 34.9 (12.7) 39 28.8* (9.3) 54 29.6* (7.8) 10 41.5 (11.1) 56 31.0 (8.3) 16 34.6 (14.6)
Percentage of long consult 181 18.0 (10.9) 21 16.0 (12.1) 39 20.5 (11.9) 54 16.9 (8.3) 10 19.0 (18.8) 53 18.2 (9.8) 13 17.8 (14.0)
Percent rural practices 171 12.0 14 18.2 39 5.1 52 5.6* 10 50.0 54 8.9 13 12.5
# of consult rooms 183 21.1 (10.2) 22 19.2 (9.8) 40 22.2 (9.9) 54 22.8 (9.7) 10 24.1 (10.8) 56 18.9 (10.6) 18 20.9 (9.0)
Patient characteristics
Average ACG® weight 174 0.795 (0.252) 17 0.898 (0.377) 40 0.738* (0.174) 54 0.802 (0.214) 6 1.119 (0.759) 56 0.766* (0.156) 9 0.834 (0.201)
% patients female 174 58.9 17 55.9 40 59.6 54 59.6 6 55.6 56 58.8 9 59.2
Average patient age 174 42.8 (6.7) 17 45.9 (8.5) 40 39.7** (5.9) 54 43.3 (5.5) 6 49.6 (11.2) 56 43.4 (6.3) 9 43.6 (9.8)
Average income quintileb 174 3.1 (0.5) 17 3.0 (0.5) 40 3.0 (0.5) 54 3.2 (0.4) 6 2.5 (0.6) 56 3.1 (0.5) 9 3.2 (0.5)
Percent IQ 1 174 17.6 17 20.7 40 19.2 54 16.3 6 28.9 56 18.2 9 13.9
Percent IQ 2 174 18.8 17 18.5 40 19.0 54 17.8 6 26.4 56 18.5 9 24.1
Percent IQ 3 174 19.0 17 18.4 40 20.2 54 18.9 6 14.6 56 19.1 9 16.6
Percent IQ 4 174 22.1 17 21.2 40 22.3 54 22.2 6 20.1 56 21.6 9 19.8
Percent IQ 5 174 22.1 17 19.6 40 19.1 54 24.5 6 7.8 ** 56 22.1 9 25.6
  1. Indicates a significant difference compared to FFS at *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
  2. aThe estimated panel was self-reported by physicians in the QUALICOPC survey. The correlation with the number of patients seen and the number of visits indicated was examined and showed low correlation (0.41). A separate SFA was conducted using the estimated panel to test as the output, and the results were consistent
  3. bVarious ways of adjusting for the socio-economic status of patients were tested. The results were consistent across specifications, and the average income quintile was selected to limit the number of explanatory variables. The distribution is reported in this descriptive table in order to provide more specific information about the characteristics of the patients in each model