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Table 2 Multinomial logit regression of the probability of children having health insurance

From: The impact of health insurance programs for children: evidence from Vietnam

Explanatory variables Estimation using
VHLSSs 2006 and 2008
Estimation using
VHLSSs 2010 and 2012
Enrolled in student health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in free health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in student health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in free health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0)
Age 0.0122 −0.0897*** −0.0407* −0.0052
  (0.0178) (0.0258) (0.0241) (0.0285)
Sex (male = 1, female = 0) −0.0250 0.0521 −0.0457 −0.0977
  (0.0757) (0.1061) (0.1056) (0.1313)
Ethnic minorities (yes = 1) −0.5868*** 0.0549 −0.6287*** 2.0530***
  (0.1190) (0.1532) (0.1811) (0.1689)
Attending school 2.4796*** 1.2287*** 2.4920*** 0.8578***
  (0.1744) (0.1974) (0.2478) (0.2255)
Log of per capita income 0.4629*** −1.3994*** 0.6031*** −1.4203***
  (0.0797) (0.1233) (0.1034) (0.1444)
Household size −0.0125 0.0060 0.1177*** 0.0051
  (0.0268) (0.0376) (0.0395) (0.0446)
Proportion of children in households 0.4780 1.0777*** 0.1684 −0.5964
  (0.2989) (0.3987) (0.4015) (0.4757)
Proportion of elderly in households 0.7076 −0.5008 1.8244*** 1.6999**
  (0.4471) (0.6530) (0.6394) (0.7518)
Age of household head 0.0129*** −0.0038 0.0011 −0.0165**
  (0.0047) (0.0061) (0.0070) (0.0079)
Sex of head (male = 1, female = 0) −0.1260 −0.1689 −0.1347 −0.0613
  (0.1388) (0.1982) (0.2004) (0.2871)
Household head without education degree Reference    
Household head with primary education 0.3605*** −0.0435 0.1820 −0.0655
  (0.1134) (0.1436) (0.1499) (0.1748)
Household head with lower-secondary 0.4131*** −0.1108 0.5080*** 0.3832*
  (0.1247) (0.1758) (0.1822) (0.2207)
Household head with upper-secondary 0.4088*** −0.4701* 0.5343** 0.1113
  (0.1508) (0.2411) (0.2201) (0.3228)
Household head with post-secondary 1.7410*** 3.1364*** 0.3392 −0.8047
  (0.5241) (0.6266) (0.3919) (0.6589)
Household head without spouse Reference    
Household head’s spouse without education −0.2191 0.4239* 0.9196*** 0.8790***
  (0.1820) (0.2436) (0.2835) (0.3404)
Household head’s spouse with primary 0.1722 −0.0040 0.4683*** −0.1166
  (0.1154) (0.1542) (0.1451) (0.1822)
Household head’s spouse with lower- 0.0630 −0.0148 0.5328*** −0.5900**
  (0.1322) (0.1902) (0.1790) (0.2376)
Household head’s spouse with upper- 0.4033** 0.2558 0.5491** −0.1479
  (0.1787) (0.2996) (0.2440) (0.3709)
Household head’s spouse with post- 1.6187** 1.3179 1.4439*** 2.4847***
  (0.6789) (0.8870) (0.5519) (0.7544)
Urban (urban = 1; rural = 0) 0.3476*** −0.5764*** 0.5644*** −0.0672
  (0.1122) (0.2011) (0.1595) (0.2254)
Number of doctors per 1000 people 2.5881*** 2.0884*** −0.1325 −0.1207
  (0.3257) (0.4800) (0.4587) (0.5366)
Number of hospital per 1000 people −37.7050*** −18.9089 1.5484 52.7175***
  (10.4348) (15.7174) (14.1803) (18.0295)
Dummy year (2008 or 2012)a 0.9342*** 1.6824*** 0.3227** 1.0438***
  (0.0886) (0.1272) (0.1270) (0.1619)
Constant −8.0450*** 9.0468*** −7.8169*** 11.5076***
  (0.8438) (1.2592) (1.1648) (1.4951)
Observations 5,013 5,013 4,110 4,110
R-squared 0.188 0.188 0.345 0.345
  1. Note: aDummy years: for regressions using the 2006 and 2008 VHLSS, the dummy year is equal 1 for 2008 and 0 for 2006. For regressions using the 2010 and 2012 VHLSS, the dummy year is equal 1 for 2012 and 0 for 2010
  2. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  3. Source: Estimates from VHLSSs 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012
  4. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1