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Table 4 Individual fixed-effects regression of health care of children

From: The impact of health insurance programs for children: evidence from Vietnam

Explanatory variables Panel data VHLSSs 2006–2008 Panel data VHLSSs 2010–2012
Number of health visits Having out-of-pocket expenditure on health care Log of out-of-pocket expenditure per health care visit Number of health visits Having out-of-pocket expenditure on health care Log of out-of-pocket expenditure per health care visit
Student health insurance 0.1242* 0.0077 −0.2732 0.1357* 0.0064 −0.0596
  (0.0676) (0.0232) (0.1682) (0.0770) (0.0350) (0.2609)
Free health insurance 0.2008** 0.0144 −0.1580** 0.6605*** 0.1398*** −0.6341*
  (0.0948) (0.0282) (0.0740) (0.1178) (0.0419) (0.3536)
Enrolment in school 0.0221 0.0249 0.0191 0.0311 0.0212 0.5818
  (0.1129) (0.0381) (0.3453) (0.1392) (0.0561) (0.3701)
Log of per capita income 0.0201 0.0234 −0.0077 0.1140 0.0269 −0.1908
  (0.0667) (0.0273) (0.1957) (0.0705) (0.0300) (0.1940)
Household size −0.2693*** −0.0106 −0.1372 0.0116 −0.0105 −0.0141
  (0.0423) (0.0158) (0.1435) (0.0497) (0.0126) (0.1406)
Proportion of children −0.0293 0.0431 1.2379 −0.1327 −0.1829 −0.0789
  (0.2799) (0.0955) (0.7870) (0.3252) (0.1212) (0.9634)
Proportion of elderly 0.3749 0.2408 −0.3678 0.2187 0.0948 −0.5288
  (0.6170) (0.2146) (1.6220) (0.7066) (0.2687) (1.9081)
Number of doctors per 1000 people 0.4352 −0.0825 2.1253 0.4993 −0.0973 −1.0901
(0.6049) (0.1960) (1.7182) (0.3444) (0.1326) (1.1539)
Number of hospital per 1000 people −0.1009 −0.0826 −0.0838 0.2649 −0.0772 0.0661
(0.8291) (0.0987) (0.1260) (0.1944) (0.0601) (0.3292)
Dummy year (2008 or 2012)a −0.4648*** −0.0580** 0.4503** −0.4183*** −0.0472* 0.0191
  (0.0717) (0.0266) (0.2210) (0.0563) (0.0249) (0.1675)
Constant   0.2047 3.9243*   0.2988 6.4762***
   (0.2877) (2.1315)   (0.3188) (2.1145)
Observations 2,296 5,013 1,279 2,008 4,110 1,094
R-squared   0.005 0.080   0.017 0.033
  1. Note: aDummy years: for regressions using the 2006 and 2008 VHLSS, the dummy year is equal 1 for 2008 and 0 for 2006. For regressions using the 2010 and 2012 VHLSS, the dummy year is equal 1 for 2012 and 0 for 2010
  2. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  3. Source: Estimates from VHLSSs 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012
  4. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1