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Table 7 Multinomial logit regression of enrolment in health insurance in 2008 on the 2006 explanatory variables

From: The impact of health insurance programs for children: evidence from Vietnam

Explanatory variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Enrolled in student health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in free health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in student health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in free health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in student health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0) Enrolled in free health insurance in 2008 (yes = 1, no = 0)
Being sick in the past 4 weeks 0.3113 0.3938 0.3281 0.3710 0.3199 0.4179
  (0.2432) (0.2726) (0.2355) (0.2291) (0.1982) (0.2606)
Being sick in the past 12 months 0.1221 0.1055 0.1075 0.0760 0.0898 0.0613
  (0.0915) (0.1572) (0.1052) (0.1503) (0.1062) (0.1387)
Sex (male = 1, female = 0) 0.0752 −0.0018 0.0532 −0.0172 0.0464 −0.0880
  (0.1122) (0.1117) (0.1188) (0.1178) (0.1224) (0.1128)
Age of child 0.0070 −0.0705*** −0.0128 −0.0859*** −0.0121 −0.0850***
  (0.0168) (0.0236) (0.0191) (0.0257) (0.0188) (0.0299)
Ethnic minorities 0.2941 1.4191*** 0.5921** 1.6516*** 0.8573*** 1.1182***
  (0.2171) (0.3302) (0.2532) (0.3670) (0.2716) (0.4275)
Urban 0.3138 −0.7767*** 0.1799 −0.8826*** −0.0960 −0.8965**
  (0.1954) (0.2832) (0.1913) (0.2642) (0.1810) (0.3613)
Having health insurance in 2006    0.9595*** 0.7294*** 0.9028*** 0.7468***
    (0.1742) (0.2230) (0.1696) (0.2248)
Number of health care visit in 2006    −0.0046 0.0084 0.0005 0.0262
   (0.0306) (0.0308) (0.0308) (0.0308)
Out-of-pocket expenditures on health in 2006 (million VND)    −0.0665** −0.0186 −0.0773* −0.0467
   (0.0337) (0.0618) (0.0397) (0.0477)
Log of per capita income      0.1905 −1.4348***
      (0.1450) (0.1629)
Age of household head      0.0049 0.0008
      (0.0044) (0.0069)
Sex of head (male = 1, female = 0)      0.0300 −0.0985
     (0.2121) (0.2962)
Household head without education degree Reference      
Household head with primary education      0.5921*** 0.3111
     (0.1578) (0.2640)
Household head with lower-secondary      0.6522*** 0.1530
     (0.2353) (0.2218)
Household head with upper-secondary      0.8411*** 0.3907
     (0.2596) (0.4023)
Household head with post-secondary      2.0384*** 2.9468***
     (0.6885) (0.9658)
Household head without spouse Reference      
Household head’s spouse without education degree      −0.1766 0.5689*
     (0.2725) (0.3336)
Household head’s spouse with primary education      −0.1890 −0.0817
     (0.1879) (0.3232)
Household head’s spouse with lower-secondary      −0.0897 0.2781
     (0.2039) (0.2676)
Household head’s spouse with upper-secondary      −0.0109 0.2500
     (0.3387) (0.3738)
Household head’s spouse with post-secondary      0.6977 0.6813
     (0.7832) (1.1070)
Constant 0.8948*** 0.5061 0.6043** 0.3018 −1.7134 12.5378***
  (0.3041) (0.3635) (0.2986) (0.3654) (1.2174) (1.5429)
Observations 2,486 2,486 2,486 2,486 2,486 2,486
Pseudo R-squared 0.0471 0.0471 0.0625 0.0625 0.129 0.129
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. Source: Estimates from VHLSSs 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012
  3. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1