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Table 2 Comparison of work conditions and experiences of health staff in rural and urban health facilities (n = 324)

From: Frontline staff motivation levels and health care quality in rural and urban primary health facilities: a baseline study in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana

Work conditions Geographical location
Rural (n = 182) Urban (n = 142) Total (n = 324) p-value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Travel time to work in minutes on daily basis 19 (22) 33(32) 25(27) 0.0000*
Estimated extra work hours a daya 0.50(2.50) 0.50(2.20) 0.50(2.30) 0.9935
Number of minutes spent per patient at a time 13(11) 15(16) 14(13) 0.4250
Number of patients seen a day per staff 58(74) 44(40) 52(62) 0.0634**
Amount of allowance received a month for extra work done (in US$ equivalence) 45(68) 52(49) 48(61) 0.6783
Monthly financial income from part time work (in US$ equivalence) 162(164) 235(261) 210(230) 0.4569
  1. Source: WOTRO- COHEiSION Project Clinic Staff Survey (March-June, 2012)
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. *Independent t-test of two-tail hypothesis is statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance
  4. ** Independent t-test of two-tail hypothesis is statistically significant at 0.10 level of significance
  5. aExtra work hours calculated as the difference of actual hours spent at work a day and the expected work hours a day