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Table 1 Composition of community groups involved in LE interventions

From: Design and implementation of community engagement interventions towards healthcare quality improvement in Ghana: a methodological approach

Group characteristics Average age Group location
18–30 years 31+ years   Rural Urban  
Group type % % p-value % % p-value
Religious (n = 22) 4 % 38 % 0.000** 15 % 27 % 0.432
Traders (n = 8) 0 % 15 %   10 % 6 %  
Widows (n = 1) 0 % 2 %   2 % 0 %  
CVG (n = 3) 8 % 0 %   4 % 2 %  
Music/singers (n = 2) 4 % 0 %   2 % 2 %  
Artisans (n = 5) 7 % 2 %   8 % 2 %  
Youth groups (n = 11) 13 % 7 %   13 % 7 %  
Total (n = 52) 36 % 64 %   54 % 46 %  
Gender distribution
 Male dominated (n = 15) 17 % 12 % 0.005** 15 % 13 % 0.779
 Female dominated (n = 36) 17 % 52 %   37 % 33 %  
 Equal distribution (n = 1) 0 % 2 %   2 % 0 %  
Total 34 % 66 %   54 % 46 %  
Literacy/education
+Mainly literates (n = 11) 8 % 13% 0.000** 15 % 6 % 0.421
++Mainly illiterates (n = 12) 21 % 2%   11 % 12 %  
 Literates/illiterates (n = 29) 6 % 50%   27 % 29 %  
Total 35 % 65%   53 % 47 %  
Group dynamics Mean(SD) Mean(SD) p-value Mean(SD) Mean(SD) p-value
Active membership (n = 52) 60.4(15.0) 60.2(18.3) 0.9668 56.6(16.9) 64.5(16.6) 0.0967*
Engagement duration (n = 52) 41.5(17.0) 40.8(12.1) 0.8634 44.5(15.1) 37.1(11.2) 0.0523*
Average time per discussant (n = 52) 1.7(1.4) 1.3(1.3) 0.3139 1.1(1.2) 1.7(1.5) 0.1203
  1. Source: WOTRO-COHEiSION Ghana Project, 2014; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test statistically significant (*p < 0.1; **p < 0.05); +Literates are operationally defined to include those who have a least secondary education certificate; ++Illiterates are operationally defined to include those who did not complete basic education or did not attain formal education altogether and cannot read or write