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Table 10 Complete estimation results of the 3SLS: Eq. (3)

From: On the interdependence of ambulatory and hospital care in the German health system

GP cases Ophthalmology Internal medicine Paediatrics Surgery Urology
Specialist Hospitalizations −0,576 −0,031 0,128 −0,047 0,199
  (0,40) (0,02) (0,25) (0,04) (0,27)
Specialist −1,139* 0,152 −1,427*** −0,045 −3,958*
Ambulatory Cases (0,55) (0,24) (0,34) (0,54) (1,61)
GP 587,778*** 833,681*** 621,521*** 852,000*** 340,511
Physician Density (153,70) (123,07) (131,93) (150,49) (232,39)
Male −73,708*** −75,607*** −51,278* −76,703*** −74,444***
Life Expectancy (12,65) (13,71) (20,17) (15,01) (13,93)
Female 7,028 4,682 28,698* 8,096 17,241
Life Expectancy (16,70) (13,98) (14,45) (13,36) (18,18)
RSA Risk Factor 2124,649*** 1673,021*** 1371,695*** 1510,455*** 1989,814***
  (383,09) (349,39) (227,19) (259,30) (400,82)
Long −Term Care Recipients −0,163 0,317 0,054 0,290 −0,130
per 10.000 Population (0,29) (0,20) (0,21) (0,21) (0,29)
Unemployment Rate in % −26,618*** −24,958*** −27,944*** −28,589*** −18,148***
  (3,99) (4,57) (3,63) (4,31) (5,14)
Net Monthly −0,158* −0,138* −0,213** −0,158** −0,247**
Household Income (0,06) (0,06) (0,07) (0,06) (0,08)
Number of Large 76,274*** 56,228*** 76,514*** 61,814*** 68,596***
Regional Centres (18,36) (16,54) (16,51) (15,05) (19,08)
Number of Medium 2,888 2,880 0,486 1,623 0,741
Regional Centres (4,46) (3,47) (3,70) (3,49) (4,71)
Highly Qualified 12,158* 4,342 4,580 5,831 10,937*
Workers in % (4,97) (4,31) (5,76) (3,82) (5,30)
Low −Skilled −4,294 −6,206* −1,475 −6,552* −0,330
Workers in % (3,76) (2,88) (3,31) (3,04) (4,39)
Single −Person 4,429 −9,315** 1,041 −6,593** 3,622
Households in % (4,43) (3,25) (4,04) (2,37) (4,93)
Immigrants in % −15,685*** −7,856** −6,661* −10,046*** −15,960***
  (3,58) (2,68) (3,30) (2,44) (3,63)
Particulate Matter (PM 10) −2,988 0,739 −3,422 −0,179 −2,067
  (1,95) (1,81) (1,80) (1,48) (1,92)
Year 2007 −637,721*** −576,277*** −628,767*** −586,597*** −739,949***
  (31,80) (32,89) (27,37) (29,41) (68,96)
Year 2008 −316,683*** −312,976*** −148,151*** −312,622*** −399,917***
  (23,21) (21,37) (42,11) (20,07) (42,43)
Constants 6808,650*** 7204,256*** 3720,273 7229,778*** 6118,658***
  (1247,22) (1465,95) (2109,81) (1447,05) (1458,26)
N 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238
Specialist Hospitalizations 0,297 0,178 1,259** 0,569 −0,797
  (0,21) (0,23) (0,45) (0,33) (1,31)
Specialist −1,616*** −0,874* −3,759*** −4,453*** −1,339**
Ambulatory Cases (0,39) (0,42) (1,00) (1,30) (0,41)
GP 727,780*** 646,518*** 530,148** 451,625* 556,333***
Physician Density (151,53) (170,14) (179,20) (181,75) (154,93)
Male −54,815*** −68,119*** −51,877** −44,313* −69,495***
Life Expectancy (16,44) (13,62) (17,10) (19,47) (18,80)
Female 16,669 10,755 8,224 18,368 2,214
Life Expectancy (15,86) (16,83) (17,78) (23,83) (15,48)
GP cases Orthopaedics Gynaecology ENT Neurology Dermatology
RSA Risk Factor 1448,408*** 1501,701*** 1264,721*** 1721,808** 1673,007**
  (265,12) (368,27) (264,22) (661,84) (513,41)
Long −Term Care Recipients −0,100 0,321 −0,574 −0,713* 0,090
per 10.000 Population (0,25) (0,27) (0,37) (0,35) (0,25)
Unemployment Rate in % −19,411*** −30,104*** −15,279** −15,843* −27,920***
  (5,09) (5,48) (5,19) (6,40) (4,73)
Net Monthly −0,150* −0,122 −0,037 −0,235** −0,119
Household Income (0,07) (0,11) (0,08) (0,08) (0,07)
Number of Large 52,497** 66,471*** 47,696* 79,434*** 70,791***
Regional Centres (17,75) (19,28) (21,61) (23,87) (17,62)
Number of Medium −5,559 2,750 −1,995 −4,924 0,677
Regional Centres (4,37) (4,18) (4,52) (4,76) (3,71)
Highly Qualified 10,878* 9,807 5,665 4,339 17,526*
Workers in % (4,60) (7,39) (5,18) (5,27) (8,30)
Low −Skilled −1,281 −6,163 −2,909 6,216 −7,735
Workers in % (3,80) (4,05) (4,17) (5,23) (5,90)
Single −Person 4,837 6,460 18,482* 18,637** 2,506
Households in % (3,59) (6,70) (7,23) (6,47) (3,88)
Immigrants in % −9,329** −12,246** −11,197*** −8,582* −10,296**
  (2,85) (4,32) (3,20) (3,80) (3,95)
Particulate Matter (PM 10) −1,767 −2,564 −1,574 −5,803* −4,060
  (1,68) (2,11) (1,91) (2,71) (2,09)
Year 2007 −661,415*** −656,445*** −686,662*** −702,031*** −635,668***
  (31,22) (48,38) (38,98) (60,98) (34,01)
Year 2008 −326,545*** −322,895*** −333,583*** −340,861*** −314,415***
  (22,87) (27,16) (26,65) (32,32) (22,89)
Constants 4492,968** 5784,788*** 4400,430** 3203,080 7198,978***
  (1678,49) (1554,32) (1635,34) (2502,86) (1535,34)
N 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238
  1. Standard error in parentheses, * p<0,10,**p<0,05,***p<0,01
  2. Note: All above mentioned variables were controlled for. Full results can be found in the Appendix