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Table 5 Regression results for Eqs. (1), (2) and (3)

From: On the interdependence of ambulatory and hospital care in the German health system

  Ophthalmology Internal medicine Paediatrics Surgery Urology
Hospitalizations (1)      
Specialist 0,251 -0,746 -0,751* -0,918 1,660
Ambulatory Cases (0,30) (0,81) (0,33) (1,47) (1,66)
GP Cases −0,151 0,082 0,160 1,966*** 0,200
  (0,10) (0,53) (0,13) (0,52) (0,29)
Bed Density 8,972*** 14,882*** 6,794*** 12,009*** 10,503***
  (1,78) (1,08) (1,09) (1,26) (1,61)
Specialist Ambulatory Cases (2)      
Specialist −0,349 -0,041** 0,134 -0,024 0,043
Hospitalizations (0,22) (0,01) (0,10) (0,01) (0,05)
GP Cases −0,301** −0,419*** −0,257*** −0,251*** −0,158***
  (0,09) (0,11) (0,05) (0,06) (0,03)
Specialist 1034,214** 1193,020*** 1150,209*** 1062,275*** 353,974
Physician Density (318,21) (204,96) (205,80) (207,65) (275,68)
GP Cases (3)      
Specialist −0,576 −0,031 0,128 −0,047 0,199
Hospitalizations (0,40) (0,02) (0,25) (0,04) (0,27)
Specialist −1,139* 0,152 −1,427*** −0,045 −3,958*
Ambulatory cases (0,55) (0,24) (0,34) (0,54) (1,61)
GP 587,778*** 833,681*** 621,521*** 852,000*** 340,511
Physician Density (153,70) (123,07) (131,93) (150,49) (232,39)
  Orthopaedics Gynaecology ENT Neurology Dermatology
Hospitalizations (1)      
Specialist −0,291 −0,107 0,834 −2,529 −0,189*
Ambulatory Cases (0,27) (0,49) (0,49) (1,66) (0,09)
GP Cases 0,185* 0,271 −0,023 −0,062 −0,063
  (0,09) (0,20) (0,12) (0,22) (0,04)
Bed Density 4,538*** 10,526*** 6,823*** 4,529*** 1,877***
  (0,53) (2,27) (1,52) (0,98) (0,40)
Specialist Ambulatory Cases (2)      
Specialist 0,174* 0,320** 0,255*** 0,083 −0,200
Hospitalizations (0,07) (0,12) (0,06) (0,07) (0,56)
GP Cases −0,200*** −0,353** −0,137*** −0,124*** −0,306***
  (0,05) (0,13) (0,03) (0,03) (0,06)
Specialist 1097,432*** 768,731* 557,960** 236,741* 1214,036***
Physician Density (193,76) (314,89) (204,31) (106,28) (339,65)
GP Cases (3)      
Specialist 0,297 0,178 1,259** 0,569 −0,797
Hospitalizations (0,21) (0,23) (0,45) (0,33) (1,31)
Specialist −1,616*** −0,874* −3,759*** −4,453*** −1,339**
Ambulatory Cases (0,39) (0,42) (1,00) (1,30) (0,41)
GP 727,780*** 646,518*** 530,148** 451,625* 556,333***
Physician Density (151,53) (170,14) (179,20) (181,75) (154,93)
  1. Standard error in parentheses, * p<0,10,**p<0,05,***p<0,01
  2. Note: All above mentioned variables were controlled for. Full results can be found in the Appendix