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Table 8 Complete estimation results of the 3SLS: Eq. (1)

From: On the interdependence of ambulatory and hospital care in the German health system

Specialist hospitalizations Ophthalmology Internal medicine Paediatrics Surgery Urology
Specialist 0,251 −0,746 −0,751* −0,918 1,660
Ambulatory Cases (0,30) (0,81) (0,33) (1,47) (1,66)
GP Cases −0,151 0,082 0,160 1,966*** 0,200
  (0,30) (0,81) (0,33) (1,47) (1,66)
Bed Density 8,972*** 14,882*** 6,794*** 12,009*** 10,503***
  (1,78) (1,08) (1,09) (1,26) (1,61)
Male −13,322 −251,611*** −49,505*** −55,089 16,414
Life Expectancy (8,78) (55,48) (9,92) (51,37) (23,11)
Female −13,904* −252,349*** −7,400 −60,530 −26,399**
Life Expectancy (6,87) (47,11) (10,23) (37,80) (8,51)
RSA Risk Factor 790,668*** 9416,139*** 59,333 235,517 16,951
  (239,02) (1217,78) (234,30) (1032,70) (719,47)
Long −Term Care Recipients −0,342*** 3,882*** 0,146 1,446* 0,389**
per 10.000 Population (0,10) (0,73) (0,14) (0,58) (0,13)
Unemployment Rate in % −1,748 −57,284* −4,133 −10,953 1,093
  (3,57) (23,05) (4,96) (18,52) (5,22)
Net Monthly −0,026 −0,104 −0,133** 0,256 0,070
Household Income (0,03) (0,23) (0,05) (0,20) (0,09)
Number of Large 26,504** −42,441 10,944 −178,167*** −4,221
Regional Centres (9,99) (72,12) (15,06) (53,27) (22,99)
Number of Medium 6,955*** 56,546*** 6,645** 21,394* 7,299***
Regional Centres (1,55) (11,04) (2,08) (8,94) (2,00)
Highly Qualified 5,269* 2,472 13,874*** 0,411 −0,910
Workers in % (2,31) (15,94) (2,65) (11,04) (4,60)
Low −Skilled −2,810 11,982 0,056 0,250 −1,716
Workers in % (1,52) (10,86) (2,08) (8,55) (1,83)
Single −Person 1,040 −36,929*** −9,376*** −1,579 −5,070*
Households in % (2,07) (10,63) (1,66) (5,67) (2,57)
Immigrants in % −0,933 67,813*** 10,472*** 31,241*** 5,143
  (2,45) (11,09) (1,83) (8,60) (5,34)
Particulate Matter (PM 10) −0,575 1,047 −3,085* −2,290 0,724
  (0,93) (6,42) (1,26) (4,08) (1,20)
Year 2007 −97,177 −341,588 41,458 971,194** 158,788
  (65,13) (343,76) (84,38) (344,37) (234,79)
Year 2008 −62,836* −78,042 126,807*** 642,815*** 94,521
  (30,63) (191,63) (30,33) (184,00) (126,57)
Constants 2210,626** 36963,049*** 5895,104*** 6794,790 657,202
  (728,98) (5216,84) (840,37) (4629,84) (1990,99)
N 1238 1238 1238 1238 1238
Specialist −0,291 −0,107 0,834 −2,529 −0,189*
Ambulatory Cases (0,27) (0,49) (0,49) (1,66) (0,09)
GP Cases 0,185* 0,271 −0,023 −0,062 −0,063
  (0,09) (0,20) (0,12) (0,22) (0,04)
Bed Density 4,538*** 10,526*** 6,823*** 4,529*** 1,877***
  (0,53) (2,27) (1,52) (0,98) (0,40)
Male −33,468*** 28,139 −23,392* −38,480* −13,574***
Life Expectancy (7,99) (16,89) (11,13) (16,05) (2,93)
Female −17,195* −1,670 4,022 −49,471*** 0,148
Life Expectancy (7,42) (14,56) (6,38) (10,52) (2,39)
Specialist hospitalizations Orthopaedics Gynaecology ENT Neurology Dermatology
RSA Risk Factor 266,322 −1927,010*** 28,083 1737,440* 420,579***
  (186,38) (331,36) (183,55) (696,28) (69,43)
Long −term Care Recipients 0,351** −0,023 0,543*** −0,047 0,067
per 10.000 Population (0,11) (0,25) (0,09) (0,27) (0,04)
Unemployment Rate in % −9,086** 16,902* −3,725 −13,861* −3,579**
  (3,02) (7,75) (2,89) (6,14) (1,33)
Net Monthly 0,132*** −0,347*** −0,059* −0,021 0,023*
Household Income (0,03) (0,08) (0,03) (0,07) (0,01)
Number of Large −4,828 −16,837 24,910* 35,340 3,563
Regional Centres (9,79) (21,50) (12,05) (26,27) (4,09)
Number of Medium 10,657*** 1,623 4,543** 5,120* 0,829
Regional Centres (1,77) (3,63) (1,55) (2,46) (0,55)
Highly Qualified 0,213 30,002*** 2,149 1,580 5,730***
Workers in % (2,40) (7,32) (2,08) (3,03) (1,03)
Low −skilled −4,231* 12,114*** 2,948* 4,016 −3,712***
Workers in % (1,67) (3,35) (1,50) (3,68) (0,56)
Single −Person −0,587 4,102 −8,417*** 6,293 −0,410
Households in % (1,87) (7,25) (2,23) (7,25) (0,64)
Immigrants in % 5,108*** 12,239*** 0,695 6,908*** 1,481*
  (1,54) (3,50) (1,61) (2,08) (0,67)
Particulate Matter (PM 10) −0,664 −2,693 0,430 −4,217 −0,917*
  (0,83) (2,21) (0,68) (2,59) (0,37)
Year 2007 64,083 200,153 2,554 −170,225 −56,515*
  (61,50) (142,10) (84,09) (184,27) (25,84)
Year 2008 65,479* 143,838* −4,045 −64,197 −22,976
  (30,37) (65,05) (41,37) (86,16) (12,86)
Constants 3928,720*** 1463,968 2220,432* 6785,421*** 1139,500***
  (716,27) (1615,06) (980,77) (1693,01) (316,57)
N 1238 1238 1238 1238 1238
  1. Standard error in parentheses, * p<0,10,**p<0,05,***p<0,01
  2. Note: All above mentioned variables were controlled for. Full results can be found in the Appendix