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Table 9 Complete estimation results of the 3SLS: Eq. (2)

From: On the interdependence of ambulatory and hospital care in the German health system

Specialists ambulatory cases Ophthalmology Internal medicine Paediatrics Surgery Urology
Specialist Hospitalizations −0,349 −0,041** 0,134 −0,024 0,043
  (0,22) (0,01) (0,10) (0,01) (0,05)
GP Cases −0,301** −0,419*** −0,257*** −0,251*** −0,158***
  (0,09) (0,11) (0,05) (0,06) (0,03)
Specialist 1034,214** 1193,020*** 1150,209*** 1062,275*** 353,974
Physician Density (318,21) (204,96) (205,80) (207,65) (275,68)
Male −27,529** −56,462*** −6,735 −29,130*** −12,677***
Life Expectancy (8,62) (12,14) (7,12) (5,48) (3,33)
Female 1,893 −11,697 13,939** 3,563 3,268
Life Expectancy (7,42) (9,98) (5,31) (4,89) (3,42)
RSA Risk Factor 963,151** 1374,248*** 342,856** 499,031*** 384,871***
  (293,05) (292,08) (105,36) (108,87) (85,45)
Long −Term Care Recipients −0,185 0,102 −0,014 0,134 −0,054
per 10.000 Population (0,14) (0,15) (0,08) (0,07) (0,05)
Unemployment Rate in % −10,135** −23,250*** −9,766*** −9,558*** −2,354
  (3,11) (4,25) (1,97) (2,13) (1,29)
Net Monthly −0,057 −0,162*** −0,071** −0,073** −0,048***
Household Income (0,03) (0,04) (0,02) (0,02) (0,01)
Number of Large 30,030* 53,129*** 25,673*** 14,811* 11,818**
Regional Centres (12,01) (12,92) (6,70) (6,72) (4,31)
Number of Medium 1,734 3,204 0,044 1,700 0,177
Regional Centres (2,15) (2,50) (1,35) (1,19) (0,90)
Highly Qualified 6,752** 10,888*** −0,687 2,167 2,318*
Workers in % (2,47) (2,76) (2,11) (1,37) (0,96)
Low −Skilled 0,025 −1,163 2,103 −0,495 0,455
Workers in % (1,77) (2,22) (1,23) (1,11) (0,74)
Single −Person 5,869*** 4,935** 3,231* −0,274 1,283*
Households in % (1,23) (1,72) (1,46) (0,75) (0,57)
Immigrants in % −7,687*** −4,667* 0,080 −2,726* −3,074***
  (1,61) (2,24) (1,37) (1,17) (0,68)
Particulate Matter (PM 10) −2,660*** −5,063*** −2,331*** −1,068* −0,554
  (0,77) (1,00) (0,56) (0,50) (0,33)
Year 2007 −218,644*** −307,591*** −162,635*** −158,596*** −131,132***
  (58,23) (65,29) (31,99) (32,08) (20,08)
Year 2008 −90,597** −128,691*** 54,803** −62,213*** −70,303***
  (33,17) (36,82) (19,07) (18,68) (11,68)
Constants 2473,987** 6143,137*** −61,622 2672,262*** 988,383**
  (932,71) (1190,85) (750,33) (526,49) (349,18)
N 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238
Specialist Hospitalizations 0,174* 0,320** 0,255*** 0,083 −0,200
  (0,07) (0,12) (0,06) (0,07) (0,56)
GP Cases −0,200*** −0,353** −0,137*** −0,124*** −0,306***
  (0,05) (0,13) (0,03) (0,03) (0,06)
Specialists Orthopaedics Gynaecology ENT Neurology Dermatology
ambulatory cases      
Specialist 1097,432*** 768,731* 557,960** 236,741* 1214,036***
Physician Density (193,76) (314,89) (204,31) (106,28) (339,65)
Male −8,219 −27,768* −8,234* −5,971 −20,240*
Life Expectancy (5,49) (12,56) (4,02) (3,29) (9,27)
Female 7,037 3,935 0,829 1,152 −3,750
Life Expectancy (5,41) (12,45) (3,48) (4,29) (6,49)
RSA Risk Factor 314,001** 812,547** 176,453* 309,764*** 515,128*
  (104,84) (296,34) (70,24) (84,15) (248,76)
Long −Term Care Recipients −0,130 0,231 −0,150* −0,165** −0,033
per 10.000 Population (0,08) (0,19) (0,06) (0,05) (0,10)
Unemployment Rate in % −1,822 −16,971*** −1,541 −1,981 −9,565***
  (2,01) (5,07) (1,29) (1,21) (2,87)
Net Monthly −0,037 0,016 0,004 −0,039** −0,032
Household Income (0,02) (0,07) (0,02) (0,01) (0,03)
Number of Large 9,840 29,436 8,303 13,189** 28,567***
Regional Centres (6,82) (16,41) (4,79) (4,05) (8,38)
Number of Medium −3,122* 2,186 −0,112 −0,717 0,237
Regional Centres (1,43) (2,97) (0,88) (0,87) (1,55)
Highly Qualified 4,029** 2,648 1,101 0,760 8,692**
Workers in % (1,49) (5,40) (1,02) (0,92) (3,21)
Low −Skilled 2,121 −3,070 0,381 1,883* −1,545
Workers in % (1,23) (2,99) (0,82) (0,73) (2,61)
Single −Person 4,448*** 11,395*** 4,792*** 4,060*** 4,092**
Households in % (0,86) (2,03) (0,71) (0,61) (1,26)
Immigrants in % −2,260 −8,041* −1,560* −0,813 −4,108*
  (1,18) (3,25) (0,72) (0,78) (1,79)
Particulate Matter (PM 10) −1,374* −2,727 −0,584 −1,413*** −2,948***
  (0,54) (1,39) (0,36) (0,34) (0,70)
Year 2007 −160,511*** −284,296*** −107,172*** −101,125*** −210,424***
  (30,80) (75,82) (19,82) (17,88) (40,46)
Year 2008 −65,327*** −113,216* −46,860*** −45,597*** −91,659***
  (18,76) (44,71) (11,71) (10,69) (22,99)
Constants 374,894 1473,006 697,276 492,033 2609,837***
  (538,55) (1294,81) (376,95) (402,82) (745,61)
N 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238 1.238
  1. Standard error in parentheses, * p<0,10,**p<0,05,***p<0,01
  2. Note: All above mentioned variables were controlled for. Full results can be found in the Appendix