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Table 1 Inpatient Cost Models, Linear and Log Linear

From: Assessing the impact of state “opt-out” policy on access to and costs of surgeries and other procedures requiring anesthesia services

  Mean costs per surgical case Log Mean costs per surgical case
  b t b t
Opt out 1815.33*** 3.76 0.08* 2.43
Rural hospital −584.32 −0.51 0.01 0.19
Hospital bed size
 Small (reference)
 Medium 85.99 0.13 −0.03 −0.68
 Large −1037.20 −1.45 −0.10 −1.83
Control/ownership of hospital
 Government or private, collapsed category (reference)
 Government, nonfederal, public, 1403.23 0.99 −0.04 −0.93
 Private, non-profit, voluntary 1448.21 0.99 −0.15** −2.85
 Private, invest-own 1770.03 1.11 −0.01 −0.19
 Private, collapsed category 3400.20 1.96 0.01 0.17
Teaching hospital 1648.59 1.22 −0.04 −1.30
Hospital HHI based on patient flow 11802.96 1.73 −0.26 −0.56
Lagged (year t-1) facility-level patient summary measures
 Total number of hospitalizations −0.05 −0.54 −0.00 −0.44
 Percentage of cases were female −2308.72 −0.24 −0.71 −0.93
 Mean length of stay 426.60 1.21 0.03 1.11
 Percentage of surgical cases 14348.88 1.75 0.54 1.33
 Mean (CMS-HCC) risk score −438.02 −0.16 −0.27 −1.16
 Age distribution (%)
  <18 7003.33 0.63 0.96 0.86
  18_44 (reference)
  45_64 11426.77 0.91 0.18 0.20
  65_74 9031.06 0.47 1.42 1.13
  75 or older 8585.06 0.56 0.91 0.86
 Admission type (%)
  Elective (reference)
  Emergency −993.71 −0.50 −0.08 −0.52
  Other 1733.18 0.84 0.20 1.85
 Percentage of routine discharge hospitalizations −4511.40 −0.85 −0.47 −1.35
 Health insurance type (%)
  Private insurance (reference)
  Medicare −2590.06 −0.56 −0.15 −0.42
  Medicaid −289.20 −0.06 −0.02 −0.09
  Others 559.90 0.21 0.07 0.35
 Race (%)
  White (reference)
  Black 5323.13 0.76 −0.11 −0.24
  Hispanic −7994.42 −1.27 −0.38 −1.04
  Other −2340.99 −1.35 −0.19 −1.63
County-level variable
 Total number of residents in the county 0.00 0.77 0.00 0.68
 Percentage of people in poverty 42.77 0.38 0.01 0.75
 Percentage of people are Medicare beneficiaries −12526.56 −0.50 −2.32 −1.27
 Percentage of people between age 16 to 64 −7064.95 −0.77 −0.31 −0.65
 Unemployment rate 1553.06 0.12 −0.73 −0.93
 Per capita income 0.10 1.06 0.00 1.63
 Number of anesthesiologists [MD/DO] per 10,000 residents −784.20 −1.39 −0.06 −1.41
Year dummy variables
 2001.year (reference)
 2002.year 466.64 1.66 0.14*** 6.16
 2003.year 1176.08** 3.62 0.26*** 9.19
 2004.year 1993.96*** 4.18 0.36*** 11.54
 2005.year 2942.80*** 5.06 0.48*** 9.88
 2006.year 4007.31*** 5.60 0.57*** 9.93
 2007.year 5322.09*** 5.76 0.69*** 9.80
 2008.year 6344.88*** 5.84 0.79*** 10.12
 2009.year 7524.34*** 6.37 0.92*** 10.61
 2010.year 9554.10*** 6.17 1.06*** 9.39
 2011.year 10332.97*** 5.79 1.13*** 9.21
Constant −2772.51 −0.16 9.06*** 6.87
N 1,339   1,339  
R-squared (within) 0.7226   0.7946  
  1. Notes: [1] t-statistics in parentheses; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; [2] Some hospital-year do not have cost-to-charge ratios; therefore, cost measure was not available; [3] interaction term between opt-out and rural hospital status was not statistically significant; therefore, main models do not include interaction terms; [4] Costs were in 2011 dollar adjusted by hospital and related services CPI