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Table 2 Inpatient Access Models, Linear and Log Linear

From: Assessing the impact of state “opt-out” policy on access to and costs of surgeries and other procedures requiring anesthesia services

  Total number of surgical discharges Log Total number of surgical discharges
  b t b t
Opt out 39.78 0.62 0.05 1.08
Rural hospital −78.00 −0.87 0.05 0.35
Hospital bed size
 Small (reference)     .
 Medium 20.62 0.77 −0.01 −0.49
 Large 226.72 1.39 0.06 1.24
Control/ownership of hospital
 Government or private, collapsed category (reference)
 Government, nonfederal, public, −151.78 −0.86 0.20 0.53
 Private, non-profit, voluntary 112.93 0.69 −0.03 −0.09
 Private, invest-own 104.25 1.05 0.27 0.87
 Private, collapsed category 15.87 0.10 0.01 0.05
Teaching hospital 75.87 1.12 0.05 0.39
Hospital HHI based on patient flow 254.90 0.61 0.85* 2.15
Lagged (year t-1) facility-level patient summary measures
 Total number of hospitalizations 0.16*** 12.43 0.00*** 9.02
 Percentage of cases were female −409.79 −0.69 −0.23 −0.21
 Mean length of stay 3.98 0.37 0.00 0.01
 Percentage of surgical cases 2580.39*** 5.43 3.99*** 4.46
 Mean (CMS-HCC) risk score −51.14 −0.34 −0.55 −1.55
 Age distribution (%)
  <18 293.78 0.49 2.70 1.83
  18_44 (reference)
  45_64 −185.31 −0.24 2.07 1.49
  65_74 597.26 1.22 2.28 1.81
  75 or older 483.46 0.92 0.34 0.31
 Admission type (%)
  Elective (reference)
  Emergency −46.15 −0.40 0.21 1.04
  Other 124.02 1.27 0.08 0.49
 Percentage of routine discharge hospitalizations −330.91 −1.27 −0.23 −0.58
 Health insurance type (%)
  Private insurance (reference)
  Medicare −106.02 −0.28 0.23 0.54
  Medicaid 163.72 0.61 0.50 1.23
  Others −29.26 −0.14 0.15 0.57
 Race (%)
  White (reference)
  Black −2054.46* −2.62 −0.21 −0.32
  Hispanic 154.64 0.42 0.23 0.40
  Other −168.06* −2.14 −0.07 −0.79
County-level variable
 Total number of residents in the county −0.00 −0.17 −0.00 −1.24
 Percentage of people in poverty −2.75 −0.31 0.00 0.23
 Percentage of people are Medicare beneficiaries −258.94 −0.24 −1.00 −0.87
 Percentage of people between age 16 to 64 −285.91 −0.70 −1.23 −2.03
 Unemployment rate −81.65 −0.07 −4.55* −2.79
 Per capita income 0.01 1.14 0.00 2.03
 Number of anesthesiologists [MD/DO] per 10,000 residents 231.51 2.04 −0.02 −0.29
Year dummy variables
 1999.year (reference) 0.00 . 0.00 .
 2000.year 78.70* 2.58 −0.01 −0.45
 2001.year 90.38* 2.27 0.01 0.22
 2002.year 70.76 1.02 0.07 1.33
 2003.year 81.98 1.21 0.07 0.85
 2004.year 141.51 1.88 −0.01 −0.12
 2005.year 122.69 1.53 −0.08 −0.75
 2006.year −2.13 −0.03 −0.15 −1.38
 2007.year 44.26 0.49 −0.19 −1.84
 2008.year 59.28 0.45 −0.15 −1.14
 2009.year −4.30 −0.03 0.02 0.10
 2010.year −55.14 −0.29 0.01 0.07
 2011.year −183.95 −0.97 −0.06 −0.29
Constant 295.62 0.55 4.94** 3.37
N 2063   2063  
R-squared (within) 0.4010   0.2019  
  1. Notes: [1] t-statistics in parentheses; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; [2] Some hospital-year do not have cost-to-charge ratios; therefore, cost measure was not available; [3] interaction term between opt-out and rural hospital status was not statistically significant; therefore, main models do not include interaction terms