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Table 1 Market conditions fostering FFS Medicare utilization of endoscopy services, and variables used in modeling

From: Medicare modernization and diffusion of endoscopy in FFS medicare

  2001-2005 2006-2009  
  Mean St. Dev Mean St. Dev Source
Dependent Variable: Avg. Annual % Endoscopy Utilization 7.4 1.2 7.9 1.3 100% of traditional FFS Medicare endoscopy claims
Market Demographics of the Medicare population (%)
 Age < 65 16.9 6.1 18.4 6.1 100% Medicare denominator files, averages 2001-2005; 2006-2010
 Age 65-74 44.5 3.7 43.5 3.9
 Age 75-84 28.6 3.6 27.2 3.5
 Age 85+ 9.9 2.4 10.9 2.8
 Female 55.0 2.8 54.2 2.5
 Caucasian 90.6 13.2 90.2 13.5
 African American 7.3 12.7 7.5 12.9
 Hispanic 1.0 3.2 1.0 2.9
 Asian 0.3 0.8 0.3 1.0
 American Indian and other races/ethnicities 0.8 4.3 1.0 4.9
 Dual/ESRD/disabled benefits 20.9 10.7 27.9 10.6
Acculturation and educational attainment of the market population, and area poverty:
 Persons Aged 65+ with little or no English language ability (2000) 14.3 14.7 14.3 14.7 US Census 2000; American Community Survey, 2006-2010; Census SAIPE
 Persons aged 65+ with graduate or professional degrees (2000; 2006-2010) 4.4 2.8 5.7 4.0
 Average poverty in the area over the past 20 years (1990-2000; 1995-2005) 14.8 6.7 14.1 5.7
Market size, which affects pace of return on investment:
 Population density (2000, 2005) per sq. mile 235.1 1661.8 242.8 1713.4 Area Health Resource Files
 Percent of the population with Medicare Part A benefits (2001, 2006) 14.1 2.0 14.8 2.0
Health market conditions:
 Prevalence of managed care plans: Medicare managed care penetration, lagged 1 year (2000, 2005) 4.9 9.7 4.6 8.4 RTI Spatial Impact Factor Database
 Prevalence of endoscopy providers: average distance from FFS claimants to closest provider (2001, 2006) 10.4 8.8 11.7 9.2
 Competition among endoscopy providers (2001, 2006) index, where 1 = perfect and 0 = no competition 0.020 0.046 0.021 0.052