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Table 7 Decomposition of inequality in health care costs ranked by income, regression coefficient (B) and concentration index (CI) for each determinant

From: Socioeconomic inequality of diabetes patients’ health care utilization in Denmark

Ranked by income SECONDARY CARE PRIMARY CARE PHARMACEUTICALS
INPATIENT OUTPATIENT
Care long stays Rehabilitation Care Rehabilitation General pracitice Specialist
Variable (reference group)   Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Income b01** 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00 * 0.00  
ci01*** 0.34 *** 0.34 *** 0.34 *** 0.34 *** 0.31 *** 0.34 *** 0.34 *** 0.34 ***
Education (high education)
 low education b02 1656.98 *** 54.93   4.80   −1036.59 *** −287.87 * 349.09 *** −262.41 *** 86.52  
ci02 −0.19 *** −0.19 *** −0.19 *** −0.20 *** −0.19 *** −0.19 *** −0.19 *** −0.19 ***
 medium education b03 1025.82 *** 44.26   −4.24   −322.94   −137.91   216.14 *** −8.86   −159.67 ***
ci03 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.10 *** 0.08 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 ***
Age and gender (Males0-14) (Females0-14)
 M15-29 b04 −613.27 *** −35.70 *** 2.24 ** −450.86 *** −114.50 *** 7.93 *** −17.02 *** −59.22 ***
ci04 −0.16 *** −0.16 *** −0.16 *** −0.17 *** −0.14   −0.16 *** −0.16 *** −0.16 ***
 M30-44 b05 −423.91 *** −17.71 *** 1.44 ** −244.19 *** −58.19 *** 20.43 *** −7.84 *** −45.28 ***
  ci05 0.39 *** 0.39 *** 0.39 *** 0.41 *** 0.36 *** 0.39 *** 0.39 *** 0.39 ***
 M45-59 b06 −283.26 *** −12.50 *** 1.75 *** −181.37 *** −20.66   23.57 *** −1.83   −52.54 ***
ci06 0.38 *** 0.38 *** 0.38 *** 0.38 *** 0.35 *** 0.38 *** 0.38 *** 0.38 ***
 M60-74 b07 −227.19 *** −11.16 *** 1.79 *** −147.29 *** −15.57   26.02 *** 2.06 * −54.51 ***
ci07 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.01 *** 0.03 ** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 ***
 M75+ b08 −228.72 *** −9.51 *** 2.72 *** −175.53 *** −26.77 ** 30.16 *** 2.68 *** −56.25 ***
ci08 −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.19 *** −0.18 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 ***
 F15-29 b09 −492.86 *** −22.93 *** 1.95 ** −220.61 *** −91.68 *** 51.24 *** 10.34 *** −90.40 ***
ci09 −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.14 *** −0.07   −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 ***
 F30-44 b10 −366.93 *** −16.01 *** 1.99 *** −178.72 *** −57.76 *** 34.93 *** 10.76 *** −82.82 ***
ci10 0.32 *** 0.32 *** 0.32 *** 0.34 *** 0.23 *** 0.32 *** 0.32 *** 0.32 ***
 F45-59 b11 −313.06 *** −12.33 *** 1.91 *** −198.61 *** −33.74 ** 31.09 *** 10.80 *** −54.44 ***
ci11 0.48 *** 0.48 *** 0.48 *** 0.39 *** 0.40 *** 0.48 *** 0.48 *** 0.48 ***
 F60-74 b12 −274.92 *** −11.52 *** 2.05 *** −169.68 *** −32.91 *** 27.37 *** 8.50 *** −45.58 ***
ci12 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.01 *** 0.03 ** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 ***
 F75+ b13 −283.56 *** −11.09 *** 2.86 *** −196.36 *** −31.08 *** 27.64 *** 3.61 *** −45.60 ***
ci13 −0.16 *** −0.16 *** −0.16 *** −0.15 *** −0.12 *** −0.16 *** −0.16 *** −0.16 ***
Labour market affiliation (in job)
 Not in job (maternity leave, job seeker allowance) b14 5656.97 *** 310.30 *** 76.42 *** 2065.49 *** 796.35 ** 705.00 *** 344.42 *** 147.77  
ci14 0.09 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 *** 0.11 *** 0.13 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 ***
 Not in job (unemployment benefit) b15 7714.01 *** 100.31   45.45 *** 1793.17 *** 355.39   955.25 *** 518.71 *** 900.41 ***
ci15 −0.44 *** −0.44 *** −0.44 *** −0.43 *** −0.42 *** −0.44 *** −0.44 *** −0.44 ***
 Education, training b16 −3160.16 ** −297.82 *** 25.81 *** 1328.96 ** −1347.85 ** −227.81 *** −165.51 *** 621.87 *
ci16 −0.90 *** −0.90 *** −0.90 *** −0.91 *** −0.85 *** −0.90 *** −0.90 *** −0.90 ***
 Early retired b17 12395.85 *** 509.88 *** 80.83 *** 8147.46 *** −67.01   932.87 *** 1113.52 *** 6599.71 ***
ci17 −0.15 *** −0.15 *** −0.15 *** −0.14 *** −0.10 *** −0.15 *** −0.15 *** −0.15 ***
 Retired b18 7303.15 *** 271.48 *** 60.31 *** 4240.48 *** 431.49 * 562.26 *** 511.90 *** 1784.64 ***
ci18 −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.20 *** −0.18 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 ***
 Child b19 −7903.27 *** −687.25 *** 79.26 *** 1970.06   −2358.20 * 257.09 *** −591.64 *** −1792.82 ***
ci19 −0.98 *** −0.98 *** −0.98 *** −0.98 *** −0.99 *** −0.98 *** −0.98 *** −0.98 ***
Marital status (marriaged)
 Unmarried b20 −793.18 * 118.66 ** 7.18   −967.62 *** 91.72   −98.20 *** −144.60 *** 435.56 ***
ci20 0.03 *** 0.03 *** 0.03 *** 0.02 *** 0.09 *** 0.03 *** 0.03 *** 0.03 ***
 widowed/longest living partner b21 546.13   110.96 ** 28.94 *** −1280.55 *** −317.43 * −14.08   −242.16 *** 138.57 ***
ci21 −0.09 *** −0.09 *** −0.09 *** −0.06 *** 0.01   −0.09 *** −0.09 *** −0.09 ***
 Divorced/annuled partnership b22 1960.90 *** 143.55 *** 35.08 *** −729.78 ** −89.68   0.94   −154.77 *** 625.22 ***
ci22 0.04 *** 0.04 *** 0.04 *** 0.05 *** 0.08 *** 0.04 *** 0.04 *** 0.04 ***
Ethicity (Ethic Dane)
 Immigrant b23 −4598.66 *** −180.16 *** −52.24 *** −1906.88 *** 556.50 ** 80.42 *** −332.02 *** −2082.04 ***
ci23 −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.22 *** −0.18 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 *** −0.21 ***
 Descendant b24 −2601.88   −272.86 *** −32.93 ** −1257.39   1008.95   19.62   −241.26 *** −1152.62 ***
ci24 −0.24 *** −0.24 *** −0.24 *** −0.25 *** −0.01   −0.24 *** −0.24 *** −0.24 ***
Region of residence (Capital Region of Denmark)
 Region Zealand b25 1518.98 *** −218.02 *** −1.39   −1508.86 *** −1203.57 *** 146.81 *** −559.62 *** −121.78 *
ci25 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   −0.03   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 Region of Southern Denmark b26 −2690.03 *** −289.19 *** 140.30 *** 1281.61 *** −2932.85 *** 343.49 *** −731.81 *** −246.01 ***
ci26 −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.03 *** −0.05 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 ***
 Central Denmark Region b27 −2483.33 *** −418.62 *** 154.80 *** −1992.48 *** −2226.42 *** 697.56 *** −766.99 *** −293.93 ***
ci27 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.04 *** 0.00   0.00   0.00  
 North Denmark Region b28 −3087.03 *** −173.55 *** 91.92 *** −3236.22 *** −1330.41 *** 632.16 *** −916.56 *** 69.90  
ci28 −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** 0.00   −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 ***
Urbanity (Cities)
 Suburbs b29 −750.90 * 52.07   1.25   −439.30   971.95 *** 170.91 *** −162.38 *** 278.42 ***
ci29 0.00 * 0.00 * 0.00 * 0.00   0.01   0.00 * 0.00 * 0.00 *
 Country side b30 −791.07 ** −1.76   −23.64 *** −1447.17 *** 975.13 *** 230.68 *** −206.41 *** 82.10 *
ci30 −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.03 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 *** −0.04 ***
Morbidity indicators
 Incident in 2011 b31 −1287.16 *** −4.70   −21.37 *** 1873.66 *** 293.34   −949.62 *** −1000.48 *** −1880.24 ***
ci31 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.02 *** 0.11 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 ***
 Complication group CG1 (CG0) * b32 8924.98 *** 370.12 *** 77.74 *** 3043.54 *** 1104.35 *** 158.60 *** 192.82 *** 3609.95 ***
ci32 0.01 *** 0.01 *** 0.01 *** 0.04 *** 0.05 *** 0.01 *** 0.01 *** 0.01 ***
 Complication group CG2 (CG0)* b33 29216.04 *** 993.73 *** 342.16 *** 11567.27 *** 2064.34 *** 469.02 *** 662.58 *** 4359.56 ***
ci33 −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.10 *** −0.07 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 ***
 Death in 2011 b34 87725.75 *** 5083.04 *** 722.43 *** 8603.19 *** −912.07 *** −617.85 *** −1014.66 *** −2310.90 ***
ci34 −0.68 *** −0.68 *** −0.68 *** −0.63 *** −0.53 *** −0.68 *** −0.68 *** −0.68 ***
  1. *CG0 = no complications, CG1 = minor complications, CG2 = severe complications
  2. ** bN = Regression coefficient of variable N
  3. ***ciN = Concentration index of variable N