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Table 8 Decomposition of inequality in health care costs ranked by education, regression coefficient (B) and concentration index (CI) for each determinant

From: Socioeconomic inequality of diabetes patients’ health care utilization in Denmark

Ranked by education SECONDARY CARE PRIMARY CARE PHARMACEUTICALS
INPATIENT OUTPATIENT
Care long stays Rehabilitation Care Rehabilitation General pracitice Specialist  
Variable (reference group)   Mean   Mean   Mean   Mean   Mean   Mean   Mean   Mean  
Income b01 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00 * 0.00 * 0.00  
ci01 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.10 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 ***
Education (high education)
 low education b02 1671.70 *** 57.60   5.09   −1044.36 *** −302.94 * 349.05 *** −260.11 *** 91.10  
ci02 −0.58 *** −0.58 *** −0.58 *** −0.58 *** −0.57 *** −0.58 *** −0.58 *** −0.58 ***
 medium education b03 1055.65 *** 47.62   −3.79   −334.48   −145.09   215.94 *** −6.32   −152.72 **
  ci03 0.25 *** 0.25 *** 0.25 *** 0.25 *** 0.28 *** 0.25 *** 0.25 *** 0.25 ***
Age and gender (Males0-14) (Females0-14)
 M15-29 b04 −620.08 *** −35.51 *** 2.27 ** −454.78 *** −112.13 *** 7.99 *** −16.68 *** −58.14 ***
ci04 −0.14 *** −0.14 *** −0.14 *** −0.13 *** −0.16 * −0.14 *** −0.14 *** −0.14 ***
 M30-44 b05 −426.18 *** −17.70 *** 1.47 ** −247.64 *** −56.56 *** 20.41 *** −7.58 *** −45.05 ***
ci05 0.08 *** 0.08 *** 0.08 *** 0.10 *** 0.08 ** 0.08 *** 0.08 *** 0.08 ***
 M45-59 b06 −284.55 *** −12.48 *** 1.77 *** −183.38 *** −19.55   23.57 *** −1.65   −52.41 ***
ci06 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.10 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 ***
 M60-74 b07 −229.27 *** −11.19 *** 1.80 *** −149.42 *** −14.46   26.00 *** 2.20 * −54.49 ***
ci07 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.06 *** 0.07 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 ***
 M75+ b08 −229.99 *** −9.48 *** 2.74 *** −177.51 *** −25.93 ** 30.16 *** 2.81 *** −56.25 ***
ci08 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.03   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 F15-29 b09 −500.86 *** −23.04 *** 1.98 ** −224.03 *** −88.97 *** 51.19 *** 10.54 *** −90.45 ***
ci09 −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.08 * −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 ***
 F30-44 b10 −369.02 *** −15.98 *** 2.02 *** −181.68 *** −56.30 *** 34.92 *** 10.99 *** −82.49 ***
ci10 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.08 *** 0.05 ** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 ***
 F45-59 b11 −314.80 *** −12.28 *** 1.93 *** −200.69 *** −32.70 ** 31.10 *** 10.98 *** −54.35 ***
ci11 0.09 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 *** 0.08 *** 0.11 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 ***
 F60-74 b12 −276.81 *** −11.50 *** 2.07 *** −171.59 *** −31.94 ** 27.36 *** 8.67 *** −45.62 ***
ci12 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.06 *** 0.08 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 ***
 F75+ b13 −284.82 *** −11.08 *** 2.87 *** −198.21 *** −30.10 *** 27.64 *** 3.74 *** −45.61 ***
ci13 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.02   0.00   0.00   0.00  
Labour market affiliation (in job)
 Not injob (maternity leave, job seeker allowance) b14 5647.67 *** 310.49 *** 75.85 *** 2050.64 *** 801.14 * 705.60 *** 343.97 *** 146.35  
ci14 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.04   0.05 *** 0.05 *** 0.05 ***
 Not in job (unemployment benefit) b15 7754.26 *** 102.21   45.48 *** 1755.88 *** 345.08   954.64 *** 520.03 *** 905.78 ***
ci15 −0.05 *** −0.05 *** −0.05 *** −0.06 *** −0.11 ** −0.05 *** −0.05 *** −0.05 ***
 Education, training b16 −3047.98 ** −296.37 *** 26.77 *** 1239.85 ** −1327.45 ** −226.53 *** −163.62 *** 634.89 **
ci16 −0.36 *** −0.36 *** −0.36 *** −0.38 *** −0.27 *** −0.36 *** −0.36 *** −0.36 ***
 Early pensioner b17 12424.47 *** 516.77 *** 80.95 *** 8113.88 *** −61.04   932.31 *** 1111.59 *** 6598.69 ***
ci17 −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.12 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 *** −0.13 ***
 Pensioner b18 7360.21 *** 273.17 *** 60.90 *** 4243.02 *** 430.83 * 563.12 *** 510.89 *** 1791.89 ***
ci18 −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.05 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 ***
 Child b19 −8016.24 *** −679.84 *** 79.79 *** 1863.83   −2312.99 * 257.14 *** −578.69 *** −1788.10 ***
ci19 0.76 *** 0.76 *** 0.76 *** 0.75 *** 0.66 *** 0.76 *** 0.76 *** 0.76 ***
Marital status (marriaged)
 Unmarried b20 −762.99 * 119.34 ** 7.51   −983.54 *** 87.62   −98.00 *** −144.59 *** 436.33 ***
ci20 −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.01 *** 0.00   −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 ***
 widowed/longest living partner b21 498.17   111.25 ** 28.21 *** −1264.30 *** −328.09 ** −14.91   −243.26 *** 139.54 ***
ci21 −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.12 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 *** −0.11 ***
 Divorced/annuled partnership b22 1959.70 *** 144.38 *** 35.48 *** −722.93 ** −93.74   0.99   −155.19 *** 624.10 ***
ci22 −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** 0.00   −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 ***
Ethicity (Ethic Dane)
 Immigrant b23 −4583.20 *** −184.46 *** −52.36 *** −1895.54 *** 566.97 ** 80.27 *** −331.87 *** −2081.26 ***
ci23 0.15 *** 0.15 *** 0.15 *** 0.14 *** 0.11 *** 0.15 *** 0.15 *** 0.15 ***
 Descendant b24 −2549.32   −270.53 *** −33.09 ** −1229.19   1017.49   19.23   −236.49 *** −1134.00 ***
ci24 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.12 *** 0.13   0.11 *** 0.11 *** 0.11 ***
Region of residence (Capital Region of Denmark)
 Region Zealand b25 1529.58 *** −219.20 *** −1.67   −1514.75 *** −1215.46 *** 146.88 *** −560.24 *** −125.67 *
ci25 −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02   −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 ***
 Region of Southern Denmark b26 −2687.59 *** −291.85 *** 140.25 *** 1267.48 *** −2931.74 *** 344.33 *** −731.61 *** −251.59 ***
ci26 −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.04 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 ***
 Central Denmark Region b27 −2496.60 *** −422.31 *** 154.16 *** −2012.19 *** −2215.80 *** 696.83 *** −767.81 *** −298.20 ***
ci27 −0.01 *** −0.01 *** −0.01 *** −0.02 *** 0.03 *** −0.01 *** −0.01 *** −0.01 ***
 North Denmark Region b28 −3077.69 *** −177.70 *** 91.88 *** −3251.57 *** −1313.66 *** 631.06 *** −916.52 *** 63.75  
ci28 −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 ***
Urbanity (Cities)
 Suburbs b29 −769.59 * 52.32   1.32   −421.47   975.00 *** 171.33 *** −162.57 *** 278.79 ***
ci29 −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.01   −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 ***
 Country side b30 −794.58 ** −1.55   −23.33 *** −1437.32 *** 979.44 *** 229.74 *** −206.84 *** 79.69  
ci30 −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.05 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 *** −0.06 ***
Morbidity indicators
 Incident in 2011 b31 −1291.89 *** −5.98   −21.65 *** 1862.19 *** 307.23   −950.00 *** −999.99 *** −1878.38 ***
ci31 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.07 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 *** 0.02 ***
 Complication group CG1 (CG0) * b32 8970.85 *** 371.90 *** 78.17 *** 3050.01 *** 1100.95 *** 159.51 *** 193.67 *** 3614.41 ***
ci32 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.01 *** 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 Complication group CG2 (CG0)* b33 29218.30 *** 994.70 *** 342.29 *** 11571.10 *** 2057.79 *** 469.32 *** 662.94 *** 4362.94 ***
ci33 −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.01   −0.03 *** −0.03 *** −0.03 ***
 Death in 2011 b34 87694.00 *** 5094.08 *** 720.90 *** 8658.61 *** −921.76 *** −618.34 *** −1012.35 *** −2311.31 ***
ci34 −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.05 *** 0.00   −0.02 *** −0.02 *** −0.02 ***
  1. *CG0 = no complications, CG1 = minor complications, CG2 = severe complications
  2. ** bN = Regression coefficient of variable N
  3. ***ciN = Concentration index of variable N