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Table 1 Attributes, definitions and attribute-levels

From: Discrete-choice modelling of patient preferences for modes of drug administration

Attributes Definitions Levels
Method of drug administration This attribute refers to the route by which therapeutically-active drug products are physically administered into a patient. The attribute-levels include all other “needle-free” methods of drug administration to capture the preferences of patients who desire oral drug delivery and/or have a fear of needles. 1. Intravenous delivery
2. Subcutaneous delivery
3. Intramuscular delivery
4. Needle-free delivery
Dosing frequency This attribute refers to the frequency of administering a drug for a single full course of treatment. Dosing frequency associated with repeated treatments should not be considered. 1. Once every six months
2. Once every month
3. Once every week
4. Once every day
Setting This attribute refers to place (clinical and non-clinical settings) where a given drug is administered. Clinical settings include, for example, hospitals, outpatient clinics, care homes, offices of general practitioners/physicians etc. Non-clinical settings include home, schools and other public places. 1. Clinical
2. Non-clinical + self-administration*
3. Non-clinical + supervision*
Disruption to daily activities This attribute refers to how a given method of drug administration or dosing frequency disrupts the daily activities of patients. Disruptions could be due to, for example, repeated venepuncture and, in the extreme, immobility (hospitalization for the sole purpose of drug administration). 1. None
2. Moderate but manageable
3. Moderate but I can’t cope
4. Severe
Risk of adverse events This attribute refers to features of drug administration that might cause discomfort or injury to patients or health-staff administering drugs. This could be local or generalized adverse events such as indurations; damage to nerves and blood vessels; abscess formation around the sites of injection etc. This is separate from side-effects of the drug molecule itself. 1. None
2. Moderate
3. Severe
Cost This attribute refers to the additional time and travel costs borne out-of-pocket by the patient each time they have to take or their medicines or it has to be given to them by health workers. 1. £0
2. £10
3. £50
4. £100
  1. Notes: * This refers to the situation where people, if properly trained, could self-administer the drug in a non-clinical setting; or otherwise, their medications will have to be delivered to them under the supervision of qualified healthcare professional, for example, a community or district nurse. Given this set of attributes and attribute-levels, we have a full factorial of 2304 (= 4432) possible profiles or treatment combinations