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Table 4 Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of catastrophic spending on institutional delivery and total maternal care expenditure associated with socio-economic and demographic correlates during pre and post NHM periods in India

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure and catastrophic health spending on maternal care in public and private health centres in India: a comparative study of pre and post national health mission period

Background characteristics Institutional delivery All three maternal care
Odd ratio 95% CI Odd ratio 95% CI
Age
  < 30 (R)
  30–59 0.86 0.77–0.97 0.78 0.68–0.89
  60+ 0.75 0.64–0.86 0.65 0.56–0.77
Place of Residence
 Rural (R)
  Urban 0.29 0.26–0.32 0.27 0.24–.0.31
Education Level
 No Education (R)
  Primary 0.98 0.87–1.10 1.02 0.89–1.18
  Secondary 1.03 0.91–1.18 1.11 0.96–1.28
  Higher secondary + 1.08 0.92–1.27 1.17 0.98–1.40
MPCE Quintile
 Poorest (R)
  Poorer 0.06 0.05–0.07 0.08 0.07–0.10
  Middle 0.02 0.02–0.03 0.03 0.02–0.04
  Higher 0.01 0.01–0.01 0.01 0.01–0.02
  Highest 0.00 0.00–0.00 0.00 0.00–0.00
Caste
 Scheduled Tribe (R)
  Scheduled Caste 1.00 0.82–1.21 1.14 0.90–1.43
  Other Backward Caste 1.18 0.99–1.42 1.44 1.16–1.78
  Others 1.19 0.99–1.44 1.30 1.04–1.63
Religion
 Hindu (R)
  Muslim 0.88 0.77–1.01 0.77 0.65–0.91
  Others 1.00 0.81–1.23 1.00 0.79–1.26
Household Type
 Other (R)
  Labourer 1.10 0.97–1.15 1.14 0.98–1.33
Interaction effect
 Public*Time (PreNHM) (R)
  Private*Time (PreNHM) 3.48 2.92–4.16 4.97 3.88–6.36
  Public*Time (PostNHM) 0.03 0.02–0.03 0.06 0.04–0.07
  Private*Time (PostNHM) 0.54 0.46–0.63 1.34 1.08–1.67
  Constant 306.61 193.33–486.26 327.92 195.11–551.15
  1. (R): Reference Category