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Table 3 Result of linear regression: Correlates of average maternity expenditure and share of maternity care expenditure in total couple’s annual income

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care for hospital births in Uttar Pradesh, India

Variable Categories Expenditure on maternity care Percentage share of expenditure in couple’s annual income
   ANCs Delivery TME ANCs Delivery TME
Age (in years)   0.055(0.039) 0.053**(0.027) 0.028(0.028) 0.000(0.002) 0.001(0.002) 0.001(0.003)
Education level of women Up to high school v/s Intermediate −0.394(0.389) −0.281(0.276) −0.102(0.292) 0.002(0.018) 0.014(0.025) 0.017(0.035)
Up to high school v/s Under graduation and above −0.035(0.309) −0.141(0.219) −0.242(0.229) 0.055***(0.014) 0.069***(0.02) 0.120***(0.027)
Religion Hindu v/s Muslim 0.249(0.351) − 0.039(0.235) 0.184(0.253) 0.013(0.016) 0.016(0.021) 0.022(0.030)
Social group SC/ST v/s OBC 0.092(0.379) −0.201(0.259) −0.111(0.27) 0.014(0.017) 0.023(0.023) 0.042(0.032)
SC/ST v/s General 0.819**(0.38) −0.131(0.266) 0.361(0.271) 0.022(0.017) 0.002(0.023) 0.021(0.033)
Per capita annual income   −0.207(0.172) −0.324***(0.119) − 0.237*(0.127) −0.069***(0.008) − 0.101***(0.011) −0.177***(0.015)
Place of residence Urban v/s Rural 0.085(0.271) 0.131(0.182) 0.154(0.197) −0.025**(0.012) −0.014(0.016) − 0.042**(0.023)
Social networks Yes v/s No 0.174(0.446) −0.169(0.324) 0.229(0.326) −0.027(0.02) −0.005(0.028) − 0.020(0.039)
Mass media exposure No v/s Yes 0.139(0.401) 0.08(0.249) 0.251(0.264) 0.026(0.016) −0.015(0.022) 0.017(0.031)
Number of previous pregnancies   −0.206(0.168) −0.23**(0.115) − 0.185(0.123) 0.010(0.008) 0.002(0.010) 0.013(0.015)
Last pregnancy registered with ANM Yes v/s No −0.382(0.256) 0.031(0.181) −0.055(0.185) −0.004(0.012) 0.015(0.016) 0.007(0.022)
Number of ANCs   0.113***(0.042) 0.070**(0.032) 0.000(0.002) 0.004(0.004)
Quality of ANCs Low v/s Medium 0.315(0.487) 0.091(0.362) −0.023(0.021) −0.043(0.042)
Low v/s High 0.443(0.39) 0.409(0.289) 0.009(0.016) 0.019(0.034)
Place of ANCs Government hospital v/s Private hospital 1.26***(0.275) 0.331(0.252) 0.056***(0.013) 0.056*(0.030)
Distance to ANC hospital   0.000(0.004) 0.001(0.003) 0.000(0.000) 0.000(0.000)
Who has taken decision on institutional delivery Self/Family planned v/s Doctor advised/ rushed to hospital due to EmOC 0.151(0.188) −0.069(0.194) 0.011(0.016) 0.034(0.023)
Type of delivery Normal v/s Caesarean/Forceps 0.244(0.19) 0.550***(0.195) 0.038**(0.016) 0.061***(0.023)
Type of hospital for delivery Government hospital v/s Government aided hospital 0.597**(0.233) 0.814***(0.251) 0.035*(0.020) 0.051*(0.029)
  Government hospital v/s Private hospital 1.951***(0.250) 1.905***(0.307) 0.135***(0.022) 0.161***(0.036)
Received JSY Yes v/s No 0.085(0.215) −0.329(0.222) −0.011(0.019) −0.042(0.027)
Constant   6.256***(2.217) 9.885***(1.536) 8.457***(1.67) 0.781(0.101) 1.114***(0.137) 1.908***(0.201)
Prob > F   0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
R-square   0.271 0.362 0.388 0.350 0.410 0.451
Adj R-square   0.202 0.304 0.320 0.296 0.362 0.451
  1. Note: Significance levels: p < 0.05*, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***, Standard error in parentheses