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Table 4 Results of Order probit regression: Correlates of catastrophic maternity expenditure at different threshold levels

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care for hospital births in Uttar Pradesh, India

Variable Categories   Marginal effect
Coefficient Less than 15% level 15–25% level More than 25% level
Age (in years)   0.008(0.034) −0.002(0.008) 0.001(0.006) 0.001(0.002)
Education level of women Up to high school v/s Intermediate −0.356(0.367) 0.076(0.067) −0.055(0.051) −0.021(0.018)
Up to high school v/s Under graduation and above 0.319(0.286) −0.080(0.076) 0.055(0.051) 0.025(0.026)
Religion Hindu v/s Muslim 0.044(0.306) −0.011(0.075) 0.007(0.052) 0.003(0.023)
Social group SC/ST v/s OBC 0.246(0.334) −0.062(0.087) 0.042(0.059) 0.019(0.029)
SC/ST v/s General 0.162(0.333) −0.040(0.082) 0.028(0.057) 0.012(0.026)
Per capita annual income   −1.435***(0.195) 0.350***(0.052) −0.244***(0.049) −0.106***(0.030)
Place of residence Urban v/s Rural 0.279(0.242) −0.066(0.056) 0.046(0.040) 0.020(0.017)
Social networks Yes v/s No 0.163(0.45) −0.040(0.109) 0.028(0.076) 0.012(0.033)
Mass media exposure No v/s Yes 0.252(0.31) −0.056(0.063) 0.04(0.046) 0.016(0.017)
Number of previous pregnancies   −0.038(0.154) 0.009(0.037) −0.007(0.026) −0.003(0.011)
Last pregnancy registered with ANM Yes v/s No 0.102(0.227) −0.025(0.055) 0.017(0.039) 0.008(0.017)
Number of ANCs   0.076**(0.037) −0.018**(0.009) 0.013*(0.007) 0.006*(0.003)
Quality of ANCs Low v/s Medium −0.894*(0.457) 0.153***(0.054) −0.115***(0.043) −0.039**(0.016)
High −0.542(0.353) 0.147(0.104) −0.096(0.066) −0.050(0.042)
Place of ANCs Government hospital v/s Private hospital −0.156(0.302) 0.038(0.074) −0.026(0.051) −0.012(0.022)
Distance to ANC hospital   0.003(0.004) −0.001(0.001) 0.000(0.001) 0.000(0.000)
Who has taken decision on institutional delivery Self/Family planned v/s Doctor advised/ Rushed to hospital due to EmOC 0.598**(0.242) −0.146**(0.059) 0.101**(0.044) 0.044**(0.021)
Type of delivery Normal v/s Caesarean/forceps 0.617**(0.251) −0.151**(0.059) 0.105**(0.044) 0.046**(0.021)
Type of hospital for delivery Government hospital v/s Government aided hospital 0.571*(0.321) −0.157(0.096) 0.102*(0.060) 0.055(0.040)
Government hospital-I v/s Private hospital 2.427***(0.422) −0.742***(0.095) 0.253***(0.052) 0.489***(0.116)
Received JSY Yes v/s No 0.627(0.289) 0.153(0.070) 0.106(0.051) 0.046(0.024)
Content 1 −12.798(2.488)    
Content 1 −11.955(2.462)    
Prob>chi2 0.0000    
Pseudo R2 0.3436    
Log likelihood 113.15    
  1. Note: Significance levels: p < 0.05*, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***, Standard error in parentheses