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Table 7 Percentage of families with incidence of ‘catastrophic spending’ for maternal health care at different threshold by key predictors

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care for hospital births in Uttar Pradesh, India

Variable Categories Less than 15% level 15–25% level More than 25% level
Age (in years) Less than 25 71.08(5.01) 15.66(4.01) 13.25(3.74)
25–29 78.43(4.09) 8.82(2.82) 12.75(3.32)
30 and above 66.67(7.11) 17.78(5.76) 15.56(5.46)
Education level of women Up to high school 73.15(4.28) 18.52(3.76) 8.33(2.67)
Intermediate 83.33(6.92) 3.33(3.33) 13.33(6.31)
Under graduation and above 70.65(4.77) 9.78(3.11) 19.57(4.16)
Religion Hindu 74.35(3.17) 12.04(2.36) 13.61(2.49)
Muslim 69.23(7.49) 17.95(6.23) 12.82(5.42)
Social group SC/ST 72.50(7.15) 15.00(5.72) 12.50(5.30)
OBC 71.43(4.96) 13.10(3.70) 15.48(3.97)
General 75.47(4.20) 12.26(3.20) 12.26(3.20)
Per capita annual income Below $390 33.33(10.54) 14.29(7.82) 52.38(11.17)
$390.1 to $976 61.54(6.81) 19.23(5.52) 19.23(5.52)
$976.1 and above 82.80(3.02) 10.83(2.49) 6.37(1.96)
Place of residence Urban 73.53(3.8) 12.50(2.85) 13.97(2.98)
Rural 73.40(4.58) 13.83(3.58) 12.77(3.46)
Social networks Yes 82.61(8.08) 8.70(6.01) 8.70(6.01)
No 72.46(3.11) 13.53(2.38) 14.01(2.42)
Mass media exposure No 70.00(7.34) 15.00(5.72) 15.00(5.72)
Yes 74.21(3.18) 12.63(2.42) 13.16(2.46)
Number of previous pregnancies 0 67.12(5.54) 20.55(4.76) 12.33(3.87)
1 74.24(5.42) 10.61(3.82) 15.15(4.45)
2 and above 78.02(4.36) 8.79(2.98) 13.19(3.57)
Last pregnancy registered with ANM Yes 73.86(4.71) 12.50(3.55) 13.64(3.68)
No 73.24(3.73) 13.38(2.87) 13.38(2.87)
Number of ANC visits Less than 3 79.07(6.28) 9.30(4.48) 11.63(4.95)
3 to 8 72.26(3.61) 13.55(2.76) 14.19(2.81)
9 and above 71.88(8.08) 15.63(6.52) 12.50(5.94)
Quality of ANCs Low 72.97(7.40) 10.81(5.18) 16.22(6.14)
Medium 77.42(7.63) 16.13(6.72) 6.45(4.49)
High 72.84(3.51) 12.96(2.65) 14.20(2.75)
Place of ANCs Government hospital 77.48(3.41) 11.92(2.65) 10.60(2.51)
Private hospital 65.82(5.37) 15.19(4.06) 18.99(4.44)
Distance to ANC hospital Less than 3kms 68.57(7.96) 17.14(6.46) 14.29(6.00)
3to 5kms 75.00(5.84) 12.50(4.46) 12.50(4.46)
6 and above 73.33(4.34) 14.29(3.43) 12.38(3.23)
Who has taken decision on institutional delivery Self/Family planned 76.15(3.75) 12.31(2.89) 11.54(2.81)
Doctor advised/ Rushed to hospital due to EmOC 70.00(4.61) 14.00(3.49) 16.00(3.68)
Type of delivery Normal 84.04(3.80) 5.32(2.33) 10.64(3.20)
Caesarean/forceps 66.18(4.07) 18.38(3.33) 15.44(3.11)
Type of hospital for delivery Government hospital 85.71(3.32) 8.04(2.58) 6.25(2.30)
Government aided hospital 68.85(5.98) 16.39(4.78) 14.75(4.58)
Private hospital 54.39(6.66) 19.30(5.27) 26.32(5.88)
Received JSY Yes 75.00(5.14) 12.50(3.92) 12.50(3.92)
No 72.78(3.55) 13.29(2.71) 13.92(2.76)
Total   73.48(2.92) 13.04(2.23) 13.48(2.26)