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Table 4 Two-part model for factors associated with OOP payments for deliveries and obstetrics emergencies (first part: logit model; second part: generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution)

From: Out-of-pocket payments in the context of a free maternal health care policy in Burkina Faso: a national cross-sectional survey

  First part: Odds ratios of positive OOP expenses (n = 576) Second part: determinants of the amount of OOP expenses (n = 163)
OR 95% IC p-value coeff 95% IC p-value
Woman’s age (years)
 14–19 1    0   
 20–24 1.50 0.82–2.73 0.186 −0.552 −0.984, − 0.120 0.012
 25–29 2.08 1.05–4.09 0.035 −0.596 −1.017, − 0.175 0.006
 30–34 2.42 1.28–4.60 0.007 −0.054 − 0.603, 0.495 0.847
 35–48 2.55 1.23–5.25 0.011 −0.762 −1.292, − 0.232 0.005
Type of facility
 Health center 1    0   
 Medical center 0.62 0.19–2.00 0.423 0.466 −0.539, 1.471 0.363
 Hospital 0.76 0.35–1.63 0.481 1.657 1.052, 2.262 < 0.001
Woman’s education
 None 1    0   
 Primary 1.30 0.79–2.15 0.304 −0.128 −0.512, 0.255 0.512
 Secondary or higher 1.75 0.82–3.78 0.150 0.467 0.080, 0.855 0.018
Place of residence
 Rural 1    0   
 Urban 1.96 0.95–4.04 0.070 0.367 0.008, 0.727 0.045
Type of service  
 Normal delivery 1    0   
 EmOC 2.35 1.29–4.28 0.005 0.225 −0.327, 0.778 0.425
Woman’s occupation
 Housewife 1      
 Student 1.36 0.56–3.30 0.501 −1.027 −1.541, −0.514 < 0.001
 Employed/informal sector 2.34 1.14–4.81 0.021 0.019 −0.377, 0.415 0.926
Health region
 Central 1    0   
 Central-West 2.32 0.96–5.62 0.062 −0.607 −1.148, − 0.065 0.028
 Central-South 1.16 0.34–3.88 0.813 −0.097 −0.664, 0.469 0.737
 Plateau central 0.38 0.13–1.09 0.073 0.247 −0.370, 0.864 0.433
 Boucle du Mouhoun 1.01 0.33–3.05 0.990 −1.744 −2.187, − 1.302 < 0.001
 Cascades 1.53 0.73–3.23 0.260 −0.757 −1.299, − 0.214 0.006
 Hauts-Bassins 0.18 0.08–0.43 < 0.001 −0.525 −1.007, − 0.042 0.033
 Central-North 1.75 0.42–7.35 0.446 −0.523 −1.069, 0.022 0.060
 Central-East 3.77 1.65–8.85 0.002 −0.628 −1.120, − 0.136 0.012
 Eastern 0.12 0.02–0.55 0.007 −1.798 −2.995, −0.600 0.003
 Northern 1.26 0.53–3.02 0.605 −0.889 −1.374, − 0.404 < 0.001
 Sahel 0.21 0.03–1.58 0.129 1.157 0.147, 2.166 0.025
 Southwest 1.58 0.65–3.87 0.314 −0.773 −1.150, − 0.395 < 0.001
  1. EmOC (emergency obstetric care) included postpartum hemorrhage, eclampsia, post-abortion care, dystocia and cesarean section