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Table 3 Spearman correlation of Inefficiency association with external variables (N = 91)

From: Determinants of Technical Efficiency in Public Hospitals: The Case of Saudi Arabia

External factors CRS P-value VRS P-value Scale P-value
Population (n) −0.3416*** 0.0009 − 0.0558 0.5991 − 0.3606*** 0.0004
Hospital bed (n) 0.1029 0.332 0.4398*** 0.00 −0.1626 0.1236
Non-Saudi (%) 0.048 0.6514 0.097 0.3605 0.0494 0.6419
Female (%) −0.1869* 0.0761 −0.0464 0.662 −0.2130** 0.0427
Children (0–5 years) (%) −0.4763*** 0.00 −0.2083** 0.0476 −0.5310*** 0.00
Adults (15–45 years) (%) −0.0626 0.5558 0.0603 0.5699 −0.0987 0.3518
Elderly (> 65 years) (%) 0.0936 0.3776 −0.0603 0.5704 0.1271 0.2298
Infectious disease (%) −0.5521*** 0.00 −0.3643*** 0.0004 −0.5300*** 0.00
Anti-microbial pres. (n) −0.0876 0.4092 −0.0152 0.8864 −0.0027 0.9797
Chronic dis. Pres. (n) −0.0764 0.4715 0.0135 0.8991 −0.0275 0.7957
Financial hardship (n) −0.4694*** 0.00 −0.2343** 0.0254 −0.5261*** 0.00
Social support (n) −0.2450** 0.0193 −0.0292 0.7838 −0.3220*** 0.0019
  1. CRS, constant return to scale; VRS, variable return to scale; Non-Saudi, percent of non-Saudi; Female, the proportion of female; Infectious disease, percentage of infectious diseases, Anti-microbial pres., amount of antimicrobial dispensed medications; Chronic dis. Pres., chronic medications dispensed; Financial hardship, the number of the population faced financial hardship; Social support, number received benefits of social-economic support. *Significant at the 0.10 level. **Significant at the 0.05 level. ***Significant at the 0.01 level