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Table 4 Tobit regression and Two- part model analysis (N = 91)

From: Determinants of Technical Efficiency in Public Hospitals: The Case of Saudi Arabia

Explanatory variable Tobit model Two-part model
Coefficient (SE) 1st part 2nd part
Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE)
Population (n) −0.548***(0.179) −12.568*(7.199) − 0.343 (0.259)
Female (%) 0.030 (0.020) −0.296 (0.270) 0.016 (0.024)
Non-Saudi (%) 0.029 (0.021) 0.255 (0.295) 0.029 (0.023)
Children (0–5 years)(%) −0.058**(0.029) −0.100 (0.264) 0.041 (0.042)
Adults (15–45 years)(%) 0.034***(0.013) 0.145 (0.146) 0.039***(0.014)
Elderly (> 65 years) (%) 0.040**(0.018) 0.213 (0.210) 0.069***(0.021)
Infectious disease (%) −0.041***(0.015)   
Anti-microbial pres. (n) 0.109 (0.075) 0.472 (0.528) 0.020 (0.062)
Chronic dis. Pres. (n) −0.222**(0.100) −0.743 (0.751) −0.298***(0.109)
Financial hardship (n) −0.506**(0.197) −19.054*(11.473) −0.487**(0.235)
Social support (n) 0.489**(0.193) 10.443* (6.305) 0.495**(0.231)
Region Category
 Central 0.183 (0.506) 16.495 (2621.05) 0.240 (0.567)
 North 0.137 (0.545) 9.223 (2621.03) 0.566 (0.615)
 South 0.370 (0.496) 11.972 (2621.04) 0.237 (0.564)
 West −0.007 (0.508) 4.765 (2621.02) −0.023 (0.574)
_Constant 4.165**(2.040) 40.710 (2621.12) 4.325*(2.603)
var (CRS) 0.970 (0.166)   
LR chi2(15) 63.89 85.22 2.17
Prob> chi2 0.00*** 0.00*** 0.021**
Pseudo R2 0.238 0.846 0.193
Log-likelihood function −102.285 −7.719 −94.416
  1. A negative coefficient indicated a positive association with CRS, and a positive coefficient meant a negative association with CRS. SE, standard error. Non-Saudi, percent of non-Saudi; Female, the proportion of female; Infectious disease, percentage of infectious diseases, Anti-microbial pres., amount of antimicrobial dispensed medications; Chronic dis. Pres., chronic prescriptions dispensed; Financial hardship, a number of the population faced financial hardship; Social support, number received benefits of social-economic support. * Significant at the 0.10 level, two-tailed test. **Significant at the 0.05 level, two-tailed test. ***Significant at the 0.01 level, two-tailed test