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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Patient and health system costs of managing pregnancy and birth-related complications in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Author and year Country Setting Study design Target population Year of data collection Quality assessment
Adamu et al. (2012) [16] Nigeria Urban Cross-sectional facility based Surviving women admitted for obstetric complications 2011 High
Akalu et al. (2012) [17] Ethiopia Largely rural Cross-sectional household survey Women (15–49 years) who have used reproductive health services in the past 12 months 2007–2008 High
Arsenault et al. (2013) [18] Mali Urban & Rural Case-control and household survey Women with obstetric emergencies 2008–2011 Moderate
Asante et al. (2007) [19] Ghana Unspecified Facility survey Women who had vaginal deliveries at health facilities, at homes and those who had C-sections 2004–2005 High
Benson et al. (2015) [20] Malawi Urban & Rural Cross-sectional facility survey Women with unsafe abortion complications 2010 High
Borghi et al. (2003) [21] Benin Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital-based Women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and near-miss obstetric complications 2000 High
Ghana Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital-based Women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and near-miss obstetric complications 1999–2000 High
Both et al. (2007) [22] Tanzania Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving maternal healthcare services 2007 High
Carnelissen et al. (2017) [23] Malawi Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital-based Patients including women requiring a surgical procedure 2014–2015 High
Dalaba et al. (2013) [24] Ghana Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving antenatal and delivery services 2010 High
Dalaba et al. (2015) [25] Ghana Unspecified Cross-sectional household survey Women with pregnancy-related complications 2014 High
Deboutte et al. (2013) [26] DR Congo Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital based Women seeking pregnancy and obstetric care 2007–2008 Moderate
Deboutte et al. (2015) [27] DR Congo Urban and Rural Case-Control Women with Caesarean section and vaginal delivery in public facilities 2007–2008 Moderate
Enweronu-Laryea et al. (2018) [28] Ghana Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Newborns hospitalized with birth-associated brain injury and preterm/low birth weight 2016 High
Henshaw et al. (2008) [29] Nigeria Urban &Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women admitted to hospital for complications of induced or spontaneous abortion or to obtain an abortion 2002–2003 Moderate
Honda et al. (2011) [30] Madagascar Mainly urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women having C-sections and children admitted for neonatal care 2007–2008 High
Ilboudo et al. (2015) [31] Burkina Faso Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women with induced or spontaneous abortions 2012 High
Ilboudo et al. (2016) [32] Burkina Faso Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women with induced abortion complications 2010 High
Johns et al. (2019) [33] Uganda
Zambia
Unspecified Retrospective Women attending health facilities for maternal and newborn healthcare services 2017–2018 High
Kalu-Umeh et al. (2013) [34] Nigeria Semi-rural Cross-sectional community based Women within the reproductive age group who had experienced childbirth 12 months or less before the study. 2010 Moderate
Kowalewski et al. (2002) [35] Tanzania Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving antenatal and maternal healthcare services 1997–1998 High
Kruk et al. (2008) [36] Tanzania Rural Retrospective Women who delivered in health facilities within the previous 5 year 2007 Moderate
Le et al. (2015) [37] South Africa Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital-based Women with unintended pregnancies 2014 Moderate
Levin et al. (2000) [38] Uganda
Malawi
Ghana
Unspecified Cross-sectional hospital-based Women presenting in healthcare facilities for maternal health services 1998 Moderate
Lince et al. (2015) [39] South Africa Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women accessing 2nd trimester abortion services 2010 High
Lince et al. (2018) [40] South Africa Urban Cross-sectional hospital based Women accessing 2nd trimester abortion services 2013–2014 High
Lince et al. (2017) [41] South Africa Urban Cross-sectional hospital based Women accessing 1st trimester abortion services 2009–2011 High
Lince et al. (2017) [42] South Africa Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women accessing 1st trimester abortion services 2011–2013 High
Lofgren et al. (2015) [43] Uganda Rural/Semi-urban Prospective observational Patients including women requiring a surgical procedure 2011 High
Meda et al. (2019) [44] Burkina Faso Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women who had delivered or received emergency obstetric care at public health facilities 2016 High
Ministry of Health [45] Kenya Urban and Rural Cross-sectional facility survey Women treated for unsafe abortion complications 2016 High
Moore et al. (2018) [46] Zambia Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving safe and unsafe abortions 2014–2015 Moderate
Ntambue et al. (2018) [47] DRC Congo Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving services in maternity wards 2014 High
Odhiambo et al. (2019) [48] Rwanda Rural Retrospective Women who delivered by emergency cesarean section 2015 High
Orach et al. (2007) [49] Uganda Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving reproductive health services 2003 Moderate
Parmar et al. (2017) [50] Zambia Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving safe and unsafe abortions 2013–2014 Moderate
Paul et al. (2015) [51] Sierra Leone Urban and Rural Cross-sectional Women with unsafe abortion complications 2012 Moderate
Pearson et al. (2011) [52] Ethiopia Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving maternity services 2008–2009 Moderate
Perkins et al. (2009) [53] Burkina Faso
Kenya
Tanzania
Predominantly Rural Cross-sectional household survey Women receiving maternity services 2006 Moderate
Ravit et al. (2015) [54] Mali Unspecified Case-control Women who underwent Caesarean section 2008–2011 Moderate
Ridde et al. (2012) [55] Burkina Faso Rural Cross-sectional household survey Women with vaginal (normal) delivery 2010 Moderate
Sambo et al. (2013) [56] Nigeria Rural Cross-sectional household survey Pregnant women and those who delivered recently (within 6 weeks postpartum) 2011 High
Sicuri et al. (2011) [57] Mozambique Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Low birth weight babies 2007 High
Sundaram et al. (2013) [58] Uganda Urban and Rural Cross-sectional household survey Women who received post-abortion care 2011–2012 High
Tongo et al. (2009) [59] Nigeria Urban Cross-sectional hospital-based Pre term/Low birth weight neonates 2008 High
Vlassoff et al. (2012) [60] Ethiopia Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women who received post-abortion care 2008 High
Vlassoff et al. (2014) [61] Uganda Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women who received post-abortion care 2010 High
Vlassoff et al. (2015) [62] Rwanda Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women who received post-abortion care 2012 High
Witter et al. (2010) [63] Senegal Urban and Rural Cross-sectional hospital-based Women receiving Caesarean section and those with normal delivery 2006–2007 Moderate