Skip to main content

Table 3 Costs for normal delivery and Caesarean sections

From: Patient and health system costs of managing pregnancy and birth-related complications in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Authors name Country Data collection year Cost category Base year cost (USD) Cost (USD) in 2018
Normal delivery
Patient perspective
  Asante et al. (2007) [19] Ghana 2004 Direct 42.1 52.4
  Borghi et al. (2003) [21] Benin 2000 Direct 23.0 33.5
Ghana 1999–2000 Direct 15.0 21.9
  Deboutte et al. (2015) [27] DR Congo 2007–2008 Direct 15.3 18.5
  Kalu-Umeh et al. (2013) [34] Nigeria 2010 Direct 9.0 10.4
  Kowalewski (2002) [35] Tanzania 1997–1998 Direct & indirect 18.5 28.5
  Kruk et al. (2008) [36] Tanzania 2007 Direct 6.9 8.6
  Levin et al. (2000) [38] Uganda 1998 Direct & indirect 17.0 26.2
Malawi 1998 Direct & indirect 7.8 120
Ghana 1998 Direct & indirect 16.6 25.5
  Meda et al. (2019) [44] Burkina Faso 2016 Direct 6.1 6.4
  Ntambue et al. (2018) [47] DR Congo 2014 Direct & indirect 45.0 50.2
  Pearson et al. (2011) [52] Ethiopia 2008–2009 Direct 14.4 16.8
Tanzania 2006 Direct 4.5 5.6
Burkina Faso 2006 Direct 6.6 8.2
  Perkins et al. (2009) [53] Kenya 2006 Direct 14.2 17.7
  Ridde et al. (2012) [55] Burkina Faso 2010 Direct 9.9 11.4
  Sambo et al. (2013) [56] Nigeria 2013 Direct 9.6 10.7
Provider perspective
  Both et al. (2007) [22] Tanzania 2003 Recurrent & capital 6.3 8.6
  Dalaba et al. (2013) [24] Ghana 2010 Recurrent & capital 63.2 72.8
  Johns et al. (2019) [33] Uganda 2017–2018 Recurrent & capital 41.3 43.2
Zambia 2017–2018 Recurrent & capital 23.0 24.1
  Levin at al (2000) [38] Uganda 1998 Recurrent 21.2 32.7
Malawi 1998 Recurrent 14.3 22.0
Ghana 1998 Recurrent 10.8 16.7
  Orach et al. (2007) [49] Uganda 2003 Recurrent & capital 6.1 8.4
  Witter et al. (2010) [63] Senegal 2006–2007 Recurrent 15.0 18.7
C-section
Patient perspective
  Arsenault et al. (2013) [18] Mali 2008–2011 Direct 107.0* 119.5
  Asante et al. (2007) [19] Ghana 2004 Direct 195.0 242.9
  Deboutte et al. (2015) [27] DR Congo 2007–2008 Direct 79.7 96.5
  Honda et al. (2011) [30] Madagascar 2007–2008 Direct 139.0 162.1
  Kalu-Umeh et al. (2013) [34] Nigeria 2010 Direct 99.0 114.0
  Kowalewski [35] Tanzania 1997–1998 Direct & indirect 135.0 208.0
  Levin et al. (2000) [38] Uganda 1998 Direct & indirect 36.2 55.8
Ghana 1998 Direct & indirect 104.0 160.2
  Meda et al. (2019) [44] Burkina Faso 2016 Direct 136.4 142.7
  Ntambue et al. (2018) [47] DR Congo 2014 Direct & indirect 338.0 377.3
  Pearson et al. (2011) [52] Ethiopia 2008–2009 Direct 51.1 59.6
  Ravit et al. (2015) [54] Mali 2008–2011 Direct 163.0 182.0
Provider perspective
  Both et al. (2007) [22] Tanzania 2003 Recurrent & capital 69.3 94.5
  Cornelissen et al. (2017) [23] Malawi 2014–2015 Recurrent & capital 351.0 391.8
  Deboutte et al. (2013) [26] DR Congo 2007–2008 Recurrent & capital 157.8 184.0
  Johns et al. (2019) [33] Uganda 2017–2018 Recurrent & capital 238.5 249.5
Zambia 2017–2018 Recurrent & capital 537 561.8
  Levin et al. (2000) [38] Uganda 1998 Recurrent 79.8 122.9
Malawi 1998 Recurrent 81.9 126.1
Ghana 1998 Recurrent 72.2 111.2
  Lofgren et al. (2015) [43] Uganda 2011 Recurrent & capital 71.4 79.7
  Odhiambo et al. (2019) [48] Rwanda 2015 Recurrent & capital 339 359.2
  Orach et al. (2007) [49] Uganda 2003 Recurrent & capital 58.7 80.1
  Witter et al. (2010) [63] Senegal 2006–2007 Recurrent 137.0 165.9
  1. *represents costs of treatment only