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Table 2 Adjusted association between generic competition and drug prices

From: Is greater generic competition also linked to lower drug prices in South Korea?

Variables The Simple Model The Expanded Model
Estimates Standard Error P-value Estimates Standard Error P-value
ATC (reference J/L)
 2 (A/B/C) −0.0193 0.0131 0.1409 0.0017 0.0133 0.8974
 3 (M/N) 0.0220 0.0149 0.1415 0.0395 0.0156 0.0114
 4 (Others) −0.0498 0.0151 0.0010 −0.0254 0.0150 0.0904
Route (reference Oral)
 Injection −0.0342 0.0117 0.0035 −0.0309 0.0138 0.0255
 Others −0.0444 0.0133 0.0009 −0.0337 0.0139 0.0153
Year −0.0066 0.0007 <  0.0001 −0.0045 0.0007 <  0.0001
Types (reference Chemicals)
 Biologics −0.0175 0.0186 0.3475 −0.0457 0.0180 0.0114
Market (reference Duopoly)
 2 (3–25)     0.0396 0.0080 <  0.0001
 3 (26–75)     0.1473 0.0198 <  0.0001
 4 (76 -)     0.1650 0.0259 <  0.0001
New drug application (reference No)
 Yes     0.0430 0.0141 0.0024
Manufacturers (reference Domestic)
 Overseas     0.0087 0.0100 0.3836
Price (reference < 103 KRW)
 II (103 ≤ <  104)     0.0418 0.0108 0.0001
 III (104 ≤ <  105)     0.0422 0.0158 0.0076
 IV (105 ≤ <  106)     0.0799 0.0271 0.0033
 V (106≤)     0.1023 0.0371 0.0060