Skip to main content

Table 1 General characteristics of micro-costing studies

From: Micro-costing in health and medicine: a critical appraisal

Characteristics N (%)
Distribution of disease area (based on ICD-9-CM diagnosis chapters)a
 Neoplasms 36 (18.5%)
 Infectious and parasitic diseases 35 (17.9%)
 Diseases of the circulatory system 21 (10.8%)
 Mental disorders 19 (9.7%)
 Diseases of the digestive system 15 (7.7%)
 Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and immunity disorders 14 (7.2%)
 Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs 7 (3.6%)
 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 6 (3.1%)
 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue 5 (2.6%)
 Injury and poisoning 5 (2.6%)
 Diseases of the genitourinary system 4 (2.1%)
 Congenital anomalies 4 (2.1%)
 Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions 4 (2.1%)
 Supplementary classification of factors influencing health status and contact with health services 4 (2.1%)
 Non-groupable disease/condition 3 (1.5%)
 Diseases of the respiratory system 1 (0.5%)
 Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium 1 (0.5%)
 Supplementary classification of external causes of injury and poisoning 1 (0.5%)
 No specific disease/condition 23 (11.8%)
Distribution of study geographic locationa
 USA 72 (36.9%)
 Europe 68 (34.9%)
 Asia 23 (11.8%)
 Africa 19 (9.7%)
 Australia/New Zealand/Micronesia 6 (3.1%)
 Canada 6 (3.1%)
 Latin America/Caribbean (including Mexico) 2 (1.0%)
Type of study designa
 Observational study 131 (67.2%)
 Randomized controlled trial 64 (32.8%)
 Decision analytic modeling 4 (2.1%)
 Other economic modeling 2 (1.0%)
 Other study design 2 (1.0%)
Type of economic evaluationa
 Cost effectiveness analysis 47 (24.1%)
 Cost utility analysis 11 (5.6%)
 Cost minimization analysis 11 (5.6%)
 Cost benefit analysis 3 (1.5%)
 Cost consequence analysis 12 (6.2%)
 Cost comparison analysis (without evaluation of effectiveness) 37 (19.0%)
 Single intervention cost analysis (without evaluation of effectiveness) 45 (23.1%)
 Single intervention cost analysis (with evaluation of effectiveness) 16 (8.2%)
 Cost of illness analysis 21 (10.8%)
 Other economic evaluation 1 (0.5%)
Economic evaluation perspective specified
 Yes 129 (66.2%)
 No 66 (33.8%)
Actual economic evaluation perspective useda
 Hospital/clinic/provider 111 (56.9%)
 Societal 40 (20.5%)
 Health care program 21 (10.8%)
 Health care system 17 (8.7%)
 Insurer 9 (4.6%)
 Employer 2 (1.0%)
 Other 15 (7.7%)
Price year specified
 Yes 131 (67.2%)
 No 64 (32.8%)
Currency specified
 Yes 194 (99.5%)
 No 1 (0.5%)
Inflation adjustment
 Yes 83 (42.6%)
 No 7 (3.6%)
 Not specified 86 (44.1%)
 Not applicable 19 (9.7%)
Sensitivity analysisa
 Deterministic sensitivity analysis 90 (46.2%)
 Stochastic (probabilistic) sensitivity analysis 13 (6.7%)
 Other sensitivity analysis 6 (3.1%)
 No sensitivity analysis 94 (48.2%)
Funding supporta
 Government funding source 79 (40.5%)
 Non-profit non-government funding source 47 (24.1%)
 Industry sponsored study 28 (14.4%)
 No funding 15 (7.7%)
 Not specified 55 (28.2%)
Conflict of interest
 Yes 12 (6.2%)
 No 76 (39.0%)
 Not specified 107 (54.9%)
  1. Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding
  2. a A study may fall into more than one of the listed categories