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Table 1 Study and surgical procedure characteristics (n = 85)

From: The use of micro-costing in economic analyses of surgical interventions: a systematic review

 n (%)
Year of publication
 Pre 20004 (4.7)
 2001–20055 (5.9)
 2006–201011 (12.9)
 2011–201531 (36.5)
 2016–201834 (40.0)
Study design
 Within/as part of RCT5 (5.9)
 Observational comparative study42 (49.4)
 Case/control study4 (4.7)
 Case-series21 (24.7)
 Other13 (15.3)
Data collection
 Prospective27 (31.8)
 Retrospective40 (47.1)
 Combination of prospective and retrospective4 (4.7)
 Not clear/not stated14 (16.5)
Type of economic analysis reported by study authors
 Cost analysis54 (63.5)
 Micro-costing/activity-based costing13 (15.3)
 Cost-effectiveness analysis6 (7.1)
 Economic analysis4 (4.7)
 Cost Consequence Analysis3 (3.5)
 Cost-utility analysis1 (1.2)
 Other4 (4.7)
Country of origin
 Europe41 (48.2)
 USA21 (24.7)
 UK7 (8.2)
 Canada4 (4.7)
 Other6 (7.1)
 Multinational6 (7.1)
Number of participating centres
 Single centre66 (77.6)
 Multicentre16 (18.8)
 Not clear/not stated3 (3.5)
Number of patients/procedures micro-costed (median, interquartile range, range)100 (24–233) (6–2130)
Surgical speciality
 Orthopaedics22 (25.9)
 General surgery14 (16.5)
 Plastic surgery9 (10.6)
 Obstetrics and gynaecology8 (9.4)
 ENT7 (8.2)
 Maxillofacial surgery5 (5.9)
 Cardiothoracic surgery5 (5.9)
 Urology3 (3.5)
 Neurosurgery2 (2.4)
 Vascular surgery1 (1.2)
 Other4 (4.7)
Surgical procedure involving an implant25 (29.4)
Type of anaesthesia used
 General anaesthesia only39 (46.4)
 Local anaesthesia only4 (4.8)
 Both local and general anaesthesia5 (6.0)
 Not stated/not clear36 (42.9)
Type of hospital stay
 Day-case procedures13 (15.3)
 Inpatient procedures43 (50.6)
 Both day-case and inpatient procedures11 (12.9)
 Not stated/not clear18 (21.2)