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Table 4 Main cost drivers identified by included studiesa (n = 72)

From: The use of micro-costing in economic analyses of surgical interventions: a systematic review

Main Cost-driversCost drivers within the surgical procedure alone
(n, %)
Cost drivers within the full episode of care
(n, %)
Operating room/theatre cost (surgery cost/operating room time)17 (28.3)0 (0.0)
Personnel/labour costs15 (25.0)14 (20.0)
Operative equipment (disposable and non-disposable, including robots)9 (15.0)0 (0.0)
Implant/device used in procedure7 (11.7)0 (0.0)
Consumables6 (10.0)6 (8.6)
Medications (including blood)4 (6.6)5 (7.0)
Inpatient stayNA25 (35.7)
Intensive careNA7 (10.0)
Physiotherapy and rehabilitationNA3 (4.3)
Overheads0 (0.0)6 (8.6)
Complications2 (3.3)0
Pre-operative visitsNA1 (1.4)
Medical aidsNA1 (1.4)
Imaging and diagnostic testsNA1 (1.4)
Other0 (0.0)1 (1.4)
  1. aMain cost drivers reported by authors. Other cost driver were identified but these were stated as the ‘main’ or most important ones