Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline patient demographics, symptoms, findings, and fatality by COVID-19 severity

From: COVID-19 healthcare cost and length of hospital stay in Turkey: retrospective analysis from the first peak of the pandemic

Demographics
No. of cases 1056
Sex
Male 582
Female 474
Ratio M:F 1.2:1.0
Age of patients - mean years 56.6
Range (years) 16–98
COVID-19 Severity Pre-symptomatic /Mild
n (%)
Moderate
n (%)
Severe
n (%)
p-value
Sex
 Male 124 (51.5) 238 (54.7) 220 (57.9) 0.283
 Female 117 (48.5) 197 (45.3) 160 (42.1)
 Total 241 (22.8) 435 (41.2) 380 (36.0)  
Clinical features
 Cough 72 (29.9) 194 (44.6) 122 (32.1) 0.000
 Fever 72 (29.9) 141 (32.4) 126 (33.2) 0.683
 Dyspnea 0 (0.0) 168 (38.6) 154 (40.5) 0.000
 Malaise 37 (15.4) 81 (18.6) 78 (20.5) 0.271
 Myalgia 25 (10.4) 35 (8.0) 14 (3.7) 0.003
 Nausea or vomiting 11 (4.6) 35 (8.0) 19 (5.0) 0.099
 Diarrhea 15 (6.2) 25 (5.7) 25 (6.6) 0.884
 Headache 15 (6.2) 24 (5.5) 18 (4.7) 0.719
 Sputum 6 (2.5) 16 (3.7) 16 (4.2) 0.529
 Sore throat 13 (5.4) 15 (3.4) 9 (2.4) 0.135
 Chills or rigors 7 (2.9) 15 (3.4) 12 (3.2) 0.926
 Chest pain or back pain 5 (2.1) 17 (3.9) 8 (2.1) 0.217
 Anorexia 4 (1.7) 11 (2.5) 10 (2.6) 0.710
 Abdominal pain 5 (2.1) 5 (1.1) 5 (1.3) 0.608
 Loss of smell or taste 3 (1.2) 4 (0.9) 5 (1.3) 0.854
 Rhinorrhoea/Stuffiness 3 (1.2) 3 (0.7) 1 (0.3) 0.339
 Others 10 (4.1) 15 (3.4) 26 (6.8) 0.067
Hematologic biomarkers
 Lymphopenia 50 (20.7) 95 (21.8) 145 (38.2) 0.000
 Thrombocytopenia 49 (20.3) 74 (17.0) 109 (28.7) 0.000
 Neutrophilia 31 (12.9) 62 (14.3) 84 (22.1) 0.002
Coagulation biomarkers
 Elevated D-dimer 126 (52.5) 268 (61.6) 269 (71.0) 0.000
 Elevated fibrinogen 187 (82.4) 331 (84.9) 319 (87.2) 0.277
Inflammatory biomarkers
 Elevated C-reactive protein  
3.1–41.8 mg/L 110 (45.6) 215 (49.4) 135 (35.5) 0.000
  > 41.8 mg/L 79 (32.8) 176 (40.5) 219 (57.6)
 Elevated serum ferritin 45 (20.1) 88 (21.4) 142 (38.3) 0.000
Biochemical biomarkers
 Elevated LDH 51 (21.7) 143 (33.2) 184 (48.5) 0.000
 Elevated liver enzymes 51 (21.2) 103 (23.7) 130 (34.2) 0.000
 Elevated serum blood urea 201 (83.4) 348 (80.4) 331 (87.3) 0.028
 Elevated serum blood creatinine 34 (14.1) 80 (18.5) 90 (23.7) 0.010
Chest CT results
 Positive 0 (0.0) 392 (95.6) 214 (88.4) 0.000
PCR results
 Positive 132 (55.5) 203 (48.3) 202 (55.0) 0.095
Comorbidities
 Comorbidity presence (any) 100 (41.5) 201 (46.2) 192 (50.5) 0.086
 Hypertension 44 (18.3) 106 (24.4) 102 (26.8) 0.048
 Diabetes 25 (10.4) 59 (13.6) 60 (15.8) 0.159
 Asthma/COPD 13 (5.4) 44 (10.1) 39 (10.3) 0.075
 Ischemic heart disease 15 (6.2) 29 (6.7) 42 (11.1) 0.034
 Cancer 15 (6.2) 24 (5.5) 41 (10.8) 0.012
 Chronic renal disease 8 (3.3) 23 (5.3) 16 (4.2) 0.474
 Heart failure 3 (1.2) 21 (4.8) 20 (5.3) 0.034
Inpatient settings
 Ward only 227 (94.2) 388 (89.2) 278 (73.2) 0.000
 Ward &ICU 14 (5.8) 47 (10.8) 102 (26.8)  
 Fatality (in hospital) 6 (2.5) 26 (6.0) 68 (17.9) 0.000
  1. CT: Computed tomography; ICU: Intensive care unit; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction