Skip to main content

Table 3 Hospital Costs and Length of Stay by Disease Severity and Post Hoc Results

From: COVID-19 healthcare cost and length of hospital stay in Turkey: retrospective analysis from the first peak of the pandemic

COVID-19 Severity Pre-symptomatic/Mild Moderate Severe
Length of stay (days)*
 Ward 7.1 (4.4) 7.8 (4.5) 8.3 (5.3)
 ICU 7.6 (5.0) 10.1 (11.0) 11.9 (12.6)
 Total 7.3 (4.5) 8.6 (6.0) 10.8 (8.4)
 Mean Differences (Cohen d’s)
 vs. pre-syptomatic/mild 1.2 (0.2) *** 3.4 (0.5) #
 vs.moderate 2.2 (0.3) #
Cost (PPP$)**
 Physician costs 8.9 (26.6) 10.9 (16.5) 13.5 (18.5)
 Laboratory tests 487.3 (371.7) 526.3 (353.9) 565.7 (389.9)
 Imaging tests 27.3 (64.4) 34.2 (95.4) 45.7 (116.4)
 Bed 345.7 (263.4) 438.4 (288.2) 419.4 (300.8)
 Interventions 228.5 (349.3) 261.7 (362.5) 260.6 (253.7)
 Drugs 370.5 (927.7) 368.3 (1087.7) 869.3 (1538.9)
 Medical supplies 35.7 (228.7) 116.8 (924.5) 353.4 (1533.4)
 Procedural packages 2,290.9 (2141.4) 3,127.4 (5025.2) 4,920.1 (7135.9)
 Total 3,794.7 (3275.5) 4,883.9 (6991.2) 7,447.7 (9307.5)
Mean Differences (Cohen d’s)
 vs. pre-syptomatic/mild 1,089.2 (0.2) *** 3,626.6 (0.5) #
 vs.moderate 2,556.5 (0.3) #
  1. ICU: Intensive care unit; PPP: Purchasing power parity
  2. * ANOVA: Welch’s F (2, 663.2) = 21.60, p = 0.000, est. ω2 = 0.038
  3. **ANOVA: Welch’s F (2, 682.7) = 25.27, p = 0.000, est. ω2 = 0.044
  4. *** p < 0.05, # p = 0.000