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Table 2 Multilevel Poisson regression model of risk of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, Bangladesh, 2017 (N = 39,124)

From: Forgone healthcare and financial burden due to out-of-pocket payments in Bangladesh: a multilevel analysis

Variable Frequency of catastrophic expenditure Proportion (95% CI) RR (95% CI) p-values
Age, years
 0–4 1297 19.7 (17.7–21.9) 1.00  
 5–9 756 19.5 (16.9–22.4) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.02
 10–14 657 22.0 (19.8–24.4) 0.91 (0.84–1.00) 0.05
 15–19 572 21.7 (19.3–24.4) 0.89 (0.80–0.98) 0.02
 20–24 588 25.9 (23.2–28.7) 0.99 (0.88–1.10) 0.80
 25–64 4742 27.1 (25.8–28.4) 0.89 (0.79–1.00) 0.05
  ≥ 65 944 34.3 (31.6–37.1) 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 0.47
Gender
 Male 4326 24.1 (22.7–25.7) 1.00  
 Female 5230 25.0 (23.6–26.3) 1.02 (0.98–1.06) 0.38
Religion
 Muslim 8657 24.9 (23.6–26.4) 1.00  
 Non-Muslim 899 21.3 (18.3–24.7) 0.91 (0.82–1.00) 0.06
Marital status
 Never married 2358 22.3 (20.2–24.6) 1.00  
 Currently married 5535 28.0 (266–29.3) 1.14 (1.04–1.25) < 0.01
 Widoweda 643 28.1 (25.5–31.0) 1.14 (1.01–1.27) 0.03
Has a chronic disease
 No 5627 21.2 (19.8–22.6) 1.00  
 Yes 3929 32.9 (31.1–34.7) 1.19 (1.14–1.24) < 0.01
Outpatient care
 None 543 11.0 (8.4–14.4) 1.00  
 Public hospital 1872 37.7 (34.6–40.9) 2.59 (2.21–3.04) < 0.01
 Private hospital/clinic 5210 32.8 (31.1–34.5) 2.37 (2.03–2.77) < 0.01
 Self-medicationb 1931 14.9 (13.4–16.5) 1.32 (1.13–1.55) < 0.01
Inpatient care
 None 8469 22.9 (21.6–24.1) 1.00  
 Public hospital 597 56.1 (50.3–61.6) 1.58 (1.48–1.69) < 0.01
 Private hospital/clinic 490 69.5 (63.4–75.0) 1.78 (1.60–2.00) < 0.01
Income earner
 Yes 2573 25.7 (24.1–27.4) 1.00  
 No 6349 25.4 (24.0–26.9) 1.02 (0.97–1.07) 0.49
Consumption quintile
 Q1 (poorest) 970 16.0 (14.3–17.9) 1.00  
 Q2 1332 18.6 (16.8–20.5) 1.17 (1.05–1.31) 0.01
 Q3 1681 20.5 (18.6–22.4) 1.35 (1.21–1.50) < 0.01
 Q4 2276 27.2 (24.4–30.2) 1.70 (1.53–1.9) < 0.01
 Q5 (richest) 3297 32.8 (29.9–35.8) 2.11 (1.90–2.34) < 0.01
Household size 0.97 (0.96–0.99) < 0.01
Place of residence
 Rural 7207 26.4 (24.9–27.9) 1.00  
 Urban 2349 19.4 (17.1–22.0) 0.71 (0.66–0.77) < 0.01
Total 9556 24.6 (23.3–25.9)   
  1. RR relative risk, CI confidence interval
  2. aWidowed/Divorced/Separated; bSelf-medication/pharmacy /traditional healer