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Table 3 Multilevel Poisson regression model of risk of forgone healthcare, Bangladesh, 2017 (N = 39,124)

From: Forgone healthcare and financial burden due to out-of-pocket payments in Bangladesh: a multilevel analysis

Variable Frequency of forgone healthcare Proportion (95% CI) RR (95% CI) p-values
Age, years
 0–4 47 1.0 (0.6–1.5) 1.00  
 5–9 54 1.4 (1.1–2.0) 2.03 (1.07–3.87) 0.03
 10–14 59 1.8 (1.3–2.5) 2.59 (1.44–4.66) < 0.01
 15–19 58 2.1 (1.5–2.8) 3.15 (1.76–5.65) < 0.01
 20–24 56 2.3 (1.6–3.1) 3.67 (1.93–6.99) < 0.01
 25–64 504 3.0 (3.5–5.6) 3.87 (2.06–7.26) < 0.01
  ≥ 65 116 4.4 (3.5–5.6) 4.79 (2.44–9.37) < 0.01
Gender
 Female 537 2.5 (2.1–2.9) 1.00  
 Male 537 2.2 (1.8–2.6) 0.79 (0.65–0.96) 0.02
Religion
 Muslim 802 2.4 (2.0–2.8) 1.00  
 Non-Muslim 92 2.2 (1.5–3.2) 0.91 (0.70–1.19) 0.50
Marital status
 Never married 178 1.7 (1.4–2.2) 1.00  
 Currently married 545 2.8 (2.4–3.4) 0.81 (0.58–1.14) 0.22
 Widowed* 113 4.7 (3.6–6.0) 1.11 (0.74–1.66) 0.61
Has a chronic disease
 No 397 1.5 (1.2–1.7) 1.00  
 Yes 498 4.5 (2.8–5.4) 1.73 (1.45–2.07) < 0.01
Income earner
 No 587 2.4 (2.0–2.8) 1.00  
 Yes 278 2.9 (2.4–3.5) 1.09 (0.90–1.32) 0.37
Consumption quintile
 Q1 (poorest) 261 4.5 (3.7–5.5) 1.00  
 Q2 146 2.4 (1.8–3.1) 0.47 (0.37–0.60) < 0.01
 Q3 138 1.6 (1.3–2.1) 0.36 (0.28–0.46) < 0.01
 Q4 148 1.8 (1.4–2.5) 0.25 (0.20–0.33) < 0.01
 Q5 (richest) 202 2.2 (1.5–3.2) 0.18 (0.14–0.24) < 0.01
Household size 1.06 (1.01–1.11) 0.02
Place of residence
 Rural 680 2.6 (2.2–3.0) 1.00  
 Urban 215 1.7 (1.2–2.5) 0.98 (0.76–1.27) 0.90
Total 895 2.4 (2.0–2.7)  
  1. RR relative risk, CI confidence interval
  2. *Widowed/Divorced/Separated
  3. ap < 0.01; bp < 0.05; cp > 0.6